10 long years…

We will probably have this much fun – most likely more!

This spring we celebrate 10 years as a formal association, even though we’ve been around in various forms since 2003. This, we intend to celebrate! We have already sent invitations to loads of 14th century groups and if you haven’t been invited yet, it is probably because we forgot. Contact us and we’ll see what we can do! Maybe we’ll meet at the party?

The Hanseatic League in Stockholm


After the war between Albrecht of Mecklenburg and Margareta (read more here), Albrecht and his son was imprisoned at castle Lindholmen in the region of Skåne in southern Sweden. In July 1394, after lengthy negotiations, it was agreed that the two Mecklenburgers should be set free for a ransom of an immense sum of money, equivalent to about 8 000 kilos (more than 17 600 lbs) of pure silver. In short, they were to be released for three years, in which they had to come up with the money, and the city Stockholm was to act as a kind of deposit. Stockholm was the only city in Sweden still controlled by the Germans and hence a thorn in Margareta’s side. During those three years, Stockholm was to be superintended by a group of Hanseatic cities (Königsberg, Elbing, Thorn, Danzig, Reval, Greifswald, Lübeck and Stralsund), as the cities had agreed to act as guarantors for Albrecht. For their troubles, Margareta should pay them an annual sum of 2 000 mark for the three years they administered Stockholm. Also, the cities Rostock and Wismar (the heartland of the Mecklenburg dynasty) should help out with considerable sums of money – 1 000 mark per year.

The mission


The 20th of May 1395 the cities met in the neighboring fishing towns Skanör and Falsterbo, at the southwesternmost tip of Sweden and they agreed about their respective contributions to the mission, in wider terms. Here, they also came to terms with Margareta that the king and his son Erich were to be set free the 29th of September. It was agreed that Greifswald, Stralsund and Lübeck should send half of the personnel, equipment and provisions needed. The Prussian cities (the five remaining of the eight) should send the other half.

As an aside, 1395 is a year where the so called Vitalian brotherhood (a group of pirates) starts to take up more and more of the Hanseatic League’s agenda; in September it is decided that a peace keeping/pirate hunting fleet consisting of 11 ships and 1 000 men at arms is to be set up until 1396 to address the piracy problem. 1396 the pirates are mentioned in almost every meeting held by the Hanseatic League, which gives an impression of the situation in the Baltic region.

The Skanör-Falsterbo agreement above states that the eight cities in total should send the following personnel and equipment to take control of Stockholm:

  • 80 good men at arms in full armour (in this case this included torso protection other than chainmail)
  • 60 good crossbowmen with their weapons and including equipment
  • 12 barrels of crossbow bolts
  • 8 stone guns (bigger cannons)
  • 2 lead guns (smaller cannons/hand guns)
  • “A lot of gunpowder, which is needed for that” [the guns]
  • 60 good crossbows including levers and windlasses
  • Two good gunnery masters
  • Two crossbow makers

In addition, the cities sent large amounts of food; in short, everything that was needed to survive was to be shipped to Stockholm, including different food stuffs and tools.

About two months later, in the middle of July, the cities met in the Teutonic order castle of Marienburg/Malpork, where more exact guidelines for the mission are drawn. The troops shipped to Stockholm from the Prussian cities (Königsberg, Elbing, Thorn, Danzig, Reval) are:

  • 38 men at arms
  • 22 crossbowmen

They bring

  • 8 guns of different types, including powder, lead for making shot and peripheral equipment
  • 1 gunnery master
  • 1 crossbowmaker
  • 30 crossbows
  • 4 barrels of crossbow bolts
  • Peripheral equipment for the crossbows

The soldiers

Personal equipment

In the Marienburg meeting it was stipulated that each soldier should be equipped according to the following lists:

Each crossbowman should have:

  • 60 good bolts with tips
  • 3 crossbows (!) – one big, one middle sized and one small
  • A chainmail
  • A “chest” – probably a coat of plates
  • A mail coif
  • A iron hat
  • Plate gauntlets
  • A shield

Each man at arms should have:

  • A “whole plate armour and what belongs to it”:
  • A hood (most likely a helmet)
  • A coat-of-plates
  • Arm protection made of leather
  • A “vorstal” – probably lower arm protection made of steel
  • Leg protection
  • A shield

Curiously, nothing is mentioned of which weapons a man at arms should bring. Perhaps it didn’t matter, as long as they were armed. I have found no similar lists for Stralsund, Greifswald and Lübeck, but most likely those cities sent a similar number of soldiers with similar equipment.


The soldiers going to Stockholm had to swear a sacred oath when signing up for service:

Dys yst der wepenere unde schuczen yet unde buchsenmeystere unde bogenere. Wir sweren und geloben uch, borgermeisteren, ratmannen unde der ganczen gemeyne der stede Thorn, Elbing, Danczik unde Revele, daz wir hern Hermanne van der Halle, euwirme houbtmanne, und unsern eldesten getruwe und gehorsam will zin in bewarynge, in wache, in were des huses, veste und stat Stokholm, unde in alle anderen dingen, des uns van in bevolen wirt; unde van dannen nicht to scheydende, ee ir uns orlob gebit unde andere in unse stat sendit. Das en wille wir nicht lassen durch lib noch durch leyt, daz uns Got zo helfe unde dy heylighen.

This is roughly translated into:

This is the oath of the men at arms, the crossbowmen, the gunnery masters and the [cross?]bowmakers. We swear and promise you – the mayors, the council and all the common people of the cities Thorn, Elbing, Danzig and Reval, that we will be true and obey herr Hermann van der Halle, our noblest commander, when it comes to guarding and caring for the houses, castle and city of Stockholm, and in all other things he will command us; and therefore not to let anyone in [to Stockholm] without permission, in good times or in bad, so help us God and the Saints.

Pay, benefits and conditions

The tour of duty for the soldiers going to Stockholm was to be 18 months long, as suggested by a meeting the 19th of August, 1395.

The soldiers from the Prussian cities were paid both in fabric and in money. The men at arms was to be paid in 6 ells (1 ell = nearly 60 centimeters) of black and brown fabric (probably 2 ells wide) from Dendermonde (in Flanders), from which they should make “wide coats and hoods”, where the black should be on the right side and the brown on the left. The crossbowmen should have hoods in the same colors, plus parcham (a fabric consisting of both linen and cotton) for their jacks/gambesons. The pay also consisted of 5 marks in coin per year for the crossbowmen and 10 marks per year for the men at arms. It is not clear whether similar conditions applied to the contingents from Stralsund, Lübeck and Greifswald, even though it is probable.

In excess of this, the soldiers would probably have had free food, drink and lodgings. But like always, it seems the pay for the contingent was too little and too late. In comparison to other missions (i.e. on peace keeping ships) the pay wasn’t exactly good. In April 1396 a League meeting in Marienburg states that men at arms that goes on the peace ships without their own armour shall have 1/3 of one Mark each week. If we presume that the peace keeping mission lasted for a year (which it probably didn’t), the participating men at arms would earn more than 50% more per year than their colleagues in Stockholm. On the other hand, the peace keepers didn’t receive any fabric, but this doesn’t cover the difference.

That might be why the superior commander of the Stockholm mission, Hermann van der Halle, made complaints about “uncomfortable” individuals in the force; it could have something to do with the talks at a League meeting the 31st of December, 1396, where the gathered representatives decide to postpone the question of “pay for the men at arms that have been posted in Stockholm this year” to an upcoming meeting.


It seems the garrison commander had trouble making ends meet. Van der Halle sent frequent letters to his superiors asking for the most basic commodities to be shipped from Germany, which indicates the contingent couldn’t easily get hold of locally produced food; for some reason the force couldn’t even use the mills in Stockholm and had to grind their grain to flour via a hand mill.

This, among other things, were ordered from Germany to be delivered to the garrison: Apples, honey, onions, beer, pork, many different kinds of fish, bread, turnips, vinegar, salt, mustard, different kinds of oil (which could also have been used as fuel for lanterns), flour, malt, hops, peas, horseradish, apples and garlic.

Among the finer foods (probably reserved for the commanders) can be found: rice, almonds, raisin, wine and spice.

The posting


The contingent, commanded by the Danzig council member Hermann van der Halle, who was appointed supreme commander of the mission, reached Stockholm and took control over it the 31st of August, 1395. The day after that, the commander of the Stralsund contingent, Magnus von Alen, arrived in Stockholm with his men. Lübeck also seem to have sent a commander – Jordan Pleskow (who maybe rather wanted to stayed at home in his house on Johannisstraße 20 in Lübeck – we’ll never know). A week later, the 8th of September, the cities promised the Stockholm burghers the same freedoms as they had under the reign of King Albrecht, and the burghers – in turn – promised to be true to the trustees responsible to administer the pawned city.

The keepers of the castle, which consisted of Albrecht supporters, among others Hinrike von Brandis and Otto von Peckatel, had been informed of the turning of the tide beforehand; the Hanseatic League wrote them a letter a month before van der Halle and his troops arrived in Stockholm. Von Brandis and von Peckatel handed the city over to van der Halle without much of a fuss.

We are presented with information that paints a picture of Stockholm castle in disrepair, and probably the soldiers were put to work to repair everything, including the lodgings that had been built by private persons in the castle. The inhabitant of said lodgings – the duke Johann von Mecklenburg (a relation to King Albrecht) asked van der Halle’s permission to remain, something he was denied.

The soldiers had nevertheless to undertake what was most likely extensive renovations; the walls and roof of the castle was in a sorry state, and the cities demanded that the renovations were kept cheap. Also, the old castle commander “borrowed” a lot of kitchen equipment and a stone gun, which needed to be replaced. To assure that the borrowed gun shouldn’t be used against the castle by the leaving force, van der Halle decided to buy it from the leaving Albrecht supporters.

A less than desirable task

Hermann van der Halle didn’t seem too happy with his task. His letters back to his superiors are full of new requisitions as the victuals always ran out. Already the 19th of September, 1395, the council of Marienburg addressed van der Halles requisition for onions, garlic, herbs, fruit, honey, cod, beer, wine – and “6 or 8 big hounds, that we need so well for the castle”. Seven days later the council at Marienburg addressed a second requisition of malt, barley, more beer and wine, flour, fish, vinegar, onions, more dogs, two big ships to defend against the Vitalian brotherhood, wooden boards, (lots of) shovels and brick trowels.

In June 1396 we learn that Stockholm castle had been divided between the Stralsund forces of Magnus van Alen and the forces of Hermann van der Halle, where the Stralsunders were using the tower for their needs and the other troops occupied the courtyard (probably in the buildings erected by duke Johann von Mecklenburg) plus a cellar belonging to the keep, as they had agreed on that this was the best way to defend the castle.

Risky business

However, it seems the stay in Stockholm wasn’t only hard work; the Vitalian brotherhood was increasingly seen in and around the city – both as visitors (even as guests of the Stockholm council during wintertime, something that worried van der Halle) and as pirates. In April 1396, the cities asked van der Halle to send what troops he could spare to the peace keeping mission against the brotherhood being set up by the League.

In June he reported that ”a good hundred” members of the brotherhood, that had spent the winter in Stockholm, finally set off for Russia under the command of eight commanders in eight freight ships and with ”gunner boats”. Van der Halle made them promise not to go after the Hanseatic merchants or cities in Livonia before they left.

In August the same year, van der Halle reported several incidents involving the pirates and merchant sailors; the situation was clearly becoming more and more dangerous for the Stockholm detachment.

Furthermore, some things indicate that the commander didn’t quite trust all of his men, as he asked his superior’s permission to send some of them home: ”if they don’t please me, I want to [be allowed to] tell them: ’Go home!'”.

It seems Hermann van der Halle was also worried about the agents of Margareta; the queen invited him to meetings several times during 1396, but he never left his post. Even when the queen sent her envoy, Sten Bengtsson, to visit Stockholm, he had to announce his visit some day ahead to be let inside the gates. The queen’s envoys also demanded (according to their view of the peace treaty) that he should open the gates to 300 Swedish burghers that had been banished from the city due to their lacking loyalty to King Albrecht. Van der Halle asked his superiors for orders concerning this, but had a hard time stopping the said burghers from coming and going to the city.

By this, we can assume that the soldiers of the League was in a constant state of readiness.


Hermann van der Halle’s successor, Albrecht Russe, arrived in Stockholm in the beginning of October 1396, accompanied by an experienced old fighter and diplomat, sent by the Elbing council. His name was Claus Wulf and he had commanded soldiers since at least 1386. Likely he was sent to command the Elbing contingent, under the command of Albrecht Russe. Russe assumed command over the garrison and no sooner, Hermann van der Halle borrowed 100 marks from Russe and left in the first ship available. More than a year later he is still struggling to get the League to pay him what it owed him for his expenses in Stockholm.

If Albrecht Russe thought he would have an easy time, he was mistaken. He had to deal with the same troubles that pestered van der Halle. He hadn’t enough men, although he had too much men to feed them properly, he had to address the issue with “uncomfortable” and probably bored and restless personell and he was working at a place where he was less than welcome by the populace and by the pirates.

However, he seems to have had his ear to the ground, as he picked up a subtle warning about events waiting to occur during the summer of 1397. When commanding Stockholm castle, Hermann van der Halle had feared that a Swedish nobleman named Algot Magnusson had struck some kind of a deal with the Vitalian brotherhood. His fears seems not to have been ungrounded, as a man came to Russe, warning him of an imminent danger. The 28th of June, a big fleet of the brotherhood arrived in Stockholm, issuing demands. One can imagine the commotion in the castle when the 100 or so soldiers at some hours notice tried to ready the defenses against a force that was 1 200 men strong. Later, Russe told his superiors that he and his men had been nowhere close to ready or strong enough, and that the city would have fallen if the brotherhood had attacked.

In January 1398, Russe complained that Margareta didn’t send money for the upkeep of Stockholm, as agreed. At the same time he asked for provisions (as always) and to be relieved of his post the upcoming easter. In the agenda of a late February League meeting the participants urge that Rostock and Wismar should pay what they owe for the keeping of Stockholm. Money was, as usual, a problem.

In May 1398 a meeting at Marienburg decided that every city involved in the mission should send 3,5 Mark worth of victuals per soldier from the city in question – a grand total of 300 Mark. This is a bit interesting as it gives us an approximate number of the garrison. At this time it seems the force in Stockholm was about 85 men strong. Maybe some of the ”uncomfortable” elements were sent home?

After this, the annals of the Hanseatic League doesn’t mention the Stockholm garrison much. The times Stockholm are mentioned, it is regarding its surrender to Margareta.


During the spring of 1398, Margareta corresponds with the cities about her accession of Stockholm. The 12th of August she states that if King Albrecht hasn’t payed his ransom by the 24th, she will ask him to surrender Stockholm to her. The 29th of August, she – along with her son Bogislav (now king of Sweden) – grants Stockholm all of its previous rights; as history tells us, the king couldn’t come up with the money. The contingent from the Hanseatic League leaves the city the 29th of September and Margareta takes over. The mission is accomplished and the soldiers return home – or sets off to find the next filled purse, perhaps as part of the ever ongoing war against the Vitalian brotherhood.

The supreme commanders from Prussia

Hermann van der Halle

When the cities’ troops first arrived in Stockholm – in August 1395, they were supervised by the Danzig council member Hermann van der Halle, as mentioned above. He was sworn in as hovetman the 1st of August, where he specifically asked that his mission as commander over Stockholm should last no longer than a year.

He had the responsibility to keep Stockholm safe, which was easier said than done. Hermann van der Halle’s letters often include reminders to his superiors that he was promised to be relieved of his post after one year; it is clear that he is not very happy in Stockholm. Maybe it had something to do with the people he was forced to work with; in July, 1396 he thanked his superiors for the long asked for permission to send “uncomfortable” individuals home. Probably he was referring to members of the Thorn contingent – he made complaints about them at a League meeting in March 1397.

The 15th of June 1396, his supervisors sent him an eagerly awaited letter – he was to be relieved – as promised – by the Thorn council member Albrecht Russe. The 3rd of September he seemed somewhat anxious to learn that Russe had fallen ill in Lübeck. In the end of the same month, van der Halle himself fell ill, and as he experienced that he was of no use to the garrison, he desperately asked his superiors to send another commander as soon as they were able.

He seems to have pulled through, though, as he was present at a League meeting in Marienburg, the 31st of December, 1396.

Albrecht Russe

The Thorn council member Albrechts Russe (or “Albrecht Rusze” as he spelled it himself – an indication of his perhaps Russian descent) was appointed council member of Thorn 1393. This might well have been his first commission, where he acted as a representative for the city at various League meetings. During his career he also acted as a bailiff, mediator and solicitor, as well as councillor and mayor in the same city. He acted as a diplomat during various diplomatic postings, and was probably also a shipowner responsible for Thorn’s trading relations with Poland. A heavy weighter, no doubt.

In 1396 it is decided that he is to succeed the commander of the Stockholm garrison, Hermann van der Halle. The 14th of September 1396, Russe sends word that he plans to depart from Wismar to Stockholm the 29th of September. It is probable that he arrived in Stockholm less than a week later, which means his predecessor could take the first boat home and the heck out of Dodge during the first days of October.

Russe assumed command at the most critical period of the Hanseatic administration of the Swedish capital. The evening of the 29th of June, 1397, a fleet of 42 ships and 1 200 men, commanded by “Otto von Peckatel [former commander of the Stockholm garrison], Sven Stur, Crabbe, Egkart Kale, Kawle and other commanders that I do not know” reached Stockholm. It was a fleet belonging to the Vitalian brotherhood. It had sailed from Gotland where King Albrecht’s son Erich had put up his headquarters, along with several notable nobles – among others the duke Johann von Mecklenburg who was evicted from his house in Stockholm castle in 1395. This means that Erich von Mecklenburg took active part in the piracy that Margareta, the Teutonic order and the Hanseatic league was trying to thwart, even though he was released on bail. Perhaps this was his way to raise money for the ransom. Either way: talk about stirring the pot…

Russe sent a letter to his superiors recounting what had taken place that evening. Its contents were read out and addressed at a League meeting in Danzig the 2nd of July, three days later.

The two sides met at a small isle outside Stockholm to parlay. The fleet commanders demanded to be let inside the city, but the officials of Stockholm refused. The fleet then demanded 10 000 loaves of bread and 20 “last” (= 200 plus barrels = more than 43 000 liters) of beer. The commanders of Stockholm refused a second time, and the fleet commanders asked to buy the commodities they needed. Again they are refused; the Stockholm officials suspected treason as Albrecht Russe had received a warning some time earlier.

He tells his superiors:

A good man came to me and told me to guard the castle well – or be in dire hardship. Then I told him: ”My dear friend, can’t you speak your mind?” He said that he couldn’t tell me. He kneeled, and put two fingers on a brick, and spoke thus: ”Brick! I tell you this, as God and the Saints help me: Stockholm is betrayed!” He rose and reached his arms towards the sky and spoke: ”So help me God until my last day – what I have sworn here is the truth!” He would tell me nothing more.

After this, Russe asked for more provisions and reinforcements (“good people”) as he believed Stockholm to be in real danger. However, the fleet departed and left Stockholm alone. The League responded by ordering that one of the gates in Stockholm should be walled shut, perhaps as part of the defenses against the brotherhood.

Like his predecessor, Albrecht Russe constantly asked to be relieved, which makes you wonder what kind of a place Stockholm was. In late summer 1397, the League sent him a letter and told him that he, in time, was going to be relieved from his post by a representative from Elbing. It is uncertain if he ever was relieved or if he remained on his post until the mission in Stockholm ended.

Stridsträningshelg, 6-8 maj

Helgen 6-8/5 har Albrechts Bössor stridsträningshelg/wargame. Den kommer att äga rum i Skåne.


En av broarna vi funderar på att använda

Årets tema är Ta bron. Det kommer att innebära att ett lag kommer att hålla en bro över ett vattendrag och det andra laget ska ta sig över. Kostnaden för kalaset kommer att ligga på 150-200 spänn per skalle. Pengarna går till mat och andra omkostnader.

Jag räknar med tuff och hård fighting – som inte är scriptad – där bågskyttar och fotfolk samverkar. Vi kommer att välja en bro där vattnet inte är så pass djupt att man sjunker om man ramlar av bron 🙂

Första dagen är träningsbetonad medan andra dagen kommer att ägnas åt regelrätt strid med fria taktiska möjligheter. På kvällen äter vi och ölar. Övernattning sker i tält eller stuga, beroende på var vi befinner oss.



Bjud gärna in de som du tror är intresserad och kontakta Albrechts Bössor på info-at-albrechts.se eller via Facebook för att anmäla dig. Vi ses!

”Här lyktas Konunga styrsl” – kort om 1300-talets fursteideal.

Jag har tittat lite närmare på vår svenska furstespegel Konungastyrelsen  och idéerna bakom medeltida rådgivningslitteratur, som jag tänkte presentera i en kort serie om 2-3 blogginlägg.

/F. Carrasco


Del I. Om medeltida furstespeglar

I sin strävan att legitimera och stärka sin auktoritet vände sig de medeltida kungaätterna till den katolska kyrkan. Den byråkratiska och institutionella kapacitet som kyrkans stöd medförde innebar att politik och religion blev starkt sammanbundet. I utbyte mot sitt stöd strävade kyrkofäderna efter att fostra regenterna till att styra sina riken i enighet med den kristna läran. I denna fostringsprocess författades så kallade furstespeglar, på latin specula principis, i syfte att instruera de världsliga härskarna i sina plikter och skyldigheter samt att klargöra att kungen var insatt i sitt ämbete av Gud. Kungatiteln utökades med beteckningen Dei Gratia eller av Guds nåde genom den kyrkliga ritual som blev allt vanligare, framförallt bland de karolingiska kungarna på 700- och 800-talen, där kungen kröntes av påven.

Med tiden ökade de påvliga ambitionerna att stå över de världsliga ledarna och politiska tvistemål uppstod. Framförallt handlade konflikterna om vilka av ledarna, de andliga eller världsliga, som hade rätt att ge biskoparna investitur. Konflikten kulminerade under senare delen av 1000-talet då den tysk-romerske kejsaren Henrik IV, efter att ha blivit bannlyst och inför risken om inbördeskrig, tvingades söka bot hos påven. Investiturstriden såg sitt slut genom konkordatet i Worms år 1122 då Henriks efterföljare gick med på en kompromiss som innebar att kejsarmakten stärktes i Tyskromerska riket, medan påvens auktoritet stärktes i de italienska staterna.

Efter maktkampen kring sekelskiftet 1100 tvingades regenterna söka nya teorier för sin auktoritet, och i samband med översättningen av Aristoteles ”Politiken” på 1260-talet öppnades nya filosofiska möjligheter. Marsilius av Paduas ”Fredens försvarare” från 1324 genomsyrades av den aristoteliska läran och skildrade staten som en organism där kyrkan ingick med enda syfte att predika och förmedla sakramenten. Vidare skrev Aegidius Romanus under 1280-talet De regimine principum, vilken översattes till franska (Livre du gouvernement des roys et des princes) åt Kung Filip den sköne. Intressant nog beställdes ytterligare en översatt utgåva av en borgare i Orléans.



Originalskriften av vår svenska furstespegel Konungastyrelsen (Um Styrilse Konunga ok Höfdinga) har tyvärr gått förlorad. Däremot existerar fragment från en avskrift daterad till senare delen av 1400-talet, vars ursprung spårats till Vadstena kloster. Det avskrivna fragmentet som består av två blad folio skrivna på pergament, upptäcktes under 1860-talet i Finland där det använts som omslag till en räkenskapsbok från 1563. En fullständig avskriven utgåva av Konungastyrelsen publicerades 1634 av Johan Bure och utgör idag den enda kompletta kvarlevan av texten.

Bure skriver i inledningen på sin utgåva att han återgett texten ordagrant, något vi enligt filologen Lennart Moberg inte kan ta för givet. I en av Bures tidigare texter som han kallat Vttydhning (Uttydning) framgår det nämligen tydligt att vissa ord och stavningar i Konungastyrelsen korrigerats eller lagts till. Moberg menar dock att textens ursprungliga fornsvenska är så pass märkbar att vi endast i undantagsfall kan räkna med Bures korrigering, som i dessa fall syftar till förtydligande eller kompletterande parenteser. Bure verkar med undantag för de tydliga 1600-talstermerna balkar och flockar som i texten fungerar som kapitel, ägnat originalskriften stor omsorg och endast korrigerat i syfte att göra den mer begriplig. Den svårtydda fornsvenskan är något Bure även beklagar sig över i förordet på sin avskrift.

Dateringen av Konungastyrelsen har debatterats inom forskningen under det senaste seklet. Utgångspunkten för textens tillkomst fixerades av K.F. Söderwall i verket Studier öfver Konunga-styrelsen. Söderwall uppmärksammar olika språkdrag som tyder på att texten är skriven på klassisk fornsvenska och att den därmed inte kan dateras senare än till 1300-talets mitt. Tidigast tillkomstdatum borde ligga strax efter 1280 eftersom författaren till Konungastyrelsen tydligt använt sig av Egidius Romanus furstespegel som förebild – bara titlarna är misstänksamt lika på respektive språk.

Skriftens uppfostrande retorik pekar onekligen på att den författats åt en ung (kanske till och med) omyndig kung, det har därför varit av stort intresse för forskare att konstatera vem författaren egentligen var…


Läs mer

Timeline of Swedish politics 1306-1412

History during the 14th century can be quite confusing, and it’s more or less impossible to write a chronology in common prose. That is why we have made this timeline. Hopefully it will help you out when trying to understand the different schemes, alliances and events that took place during the period.

Click the tiny image to make it (a lot) bigger.


Read the 14th century history of Sweden in more detail in these pages:
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 1 – The beginning
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 2 – The struggle of the lawmaker
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 3 – The age of the king
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 4 – Defeat and union
This page may also be helpful:
Family tree of Swedish royals during the 14th century

Carrysack from Martebo

We all have things to carry with us when we travel. How they did it back in 14:th century is not always easy to know though. A chest is great for packing stuff in, but somewhat unwieldy to lug around. Some sort of backpack would be handy in those cases, but how did they look back in 14th century?


On Martebo church, on the island of Gotland in Sweden, a lady is depicted in a line of travellers. Over her shoulder she has slung a sort of double sack. This sack is perhaps later known as a ‘fässing’ traditionally in some parts of Sweden. Although it might be have just intended for carrying on foot, it is almost perfect for use on horses to. The picture above is from the first part of 14th century. The sack is very versatile and easy to make. The double compartments make it easier to carry and things will not fall out if it is placed on the ground. There are some different interpretations about where the opening is situated, on one side or centred. I have chosen to have it centred on mine since it is easier to pack and unpack. Especially when used on horseback.

The sack



If it is loaded heavily it will become a bit straining on an untrained shoulder. Changing shoulders will be needed from time to time. Care should be taken to load each side basically equal in weight. When used on a horse, it might be a good thing to have the opening downwards (that is; facing the horse, not the sky). If you have things you want easy access to though, the opposite will be true. As long as it is not raining it will not matter.


The making of the sack

The sack is incredible easy to make. I’ll throw in an instruction just in case someone did not deduct it from the pictures.



This article, written by Johan Käll, was peviously posted on our old webpage.

Lite över 1 000 fornsvenska ordspråk, del 1

Denna text är tagen ur en sammanställning av olika medeltida ordspråk från Fornnordisk Lexikalisk databas. Den spänner över hela medeltiden och kommer ur många olika böcker. En del ordspråk känner man igen och används nästan dagligen även idag. Andra har man ingen aning om vad de betyder.

Någon översättning har jag inte orkat mig på, men fornnordiska är inte så svårt att läsa. Se det som en dialekt, läs högt och lyssna på hur det låter. På den här tiden fanns inga stavningsregler och man skrev som det lät. Stavningen av ett och samma ord kan även skilja sig i samma text.

Något hjälp kan man ha av att Å ofta skrivs AA, Ä- AE eller bara som E och Ö- OE. U kan stå för både U och V ljud (och tvärt om). I och J används som samma bokstav. Th är ofta D, men ofta ett mer tonande som i engelskans Them.

1. Mædh lagh skal man land byggia
2. ware ey lagh i lande tha toghe hwar som finge
3. swa gaa lagh som man hawir tygh
4. nødh brythir lagh
5. nu liggia lagh j spyutstangx ænda
6. lagh æru rætsins budh ok kroka forbudh
7. thu skalt land sidh følia ællir land fly
8. Man skal a lande liua som thær ær sidhir
9. hwar som aarla riis han wardhir mangs viis
10. lænth thingh skulu olastadh heem gaa
11. thwa hundh ok kæmb han ær æ hundhir thæn same
12. thy bruna nothen hawir thæn søta kærnan
13. haandaløs æ anbodha løøs man
14. Thu skalt taka swarth salt aff ondom gyællara
15. samarla liggia ætande tidhir
16. lime gør goth barn
17. latan skal man fast køra
18. egh bær hwar man høøk aa hænde
19. skøth ær gagn giorth
20. æ findhir kaka sin maka
21. mø war blygh som brudh hon sprangh i sængh til drængh
22. æ hwilas oxe mædhan annar dræghir
23. man skal ey wræka swarta hustrv til sænga stook
24. gardh kona skal klyppa kwidh wl ok ey bogh vl
25. Math hawir mænska
26. ffaa giwa dumba lamb
27. thæth ær onth at wænia the swiin v aker som i æro w..
28. thæth fætha wil alth vppe flyta
29. ondhe mæn arom spilla
30. thæn pungir ær tombir som annars pæninga æru i
31. thæth ær goth at simma tha annar haldhir huwdhit vppe
32. kaldhir somar gør heta ladhu
33. siildh ær siælfskiptir mathir
34. siil ær matha vildh
35. thæth ær siælsynth at se hwitan rampn
36. kanna offuir gardh oc annur i geen gør godhan vinsk..
37. Mange bækkia ok sma gøra stora aa
38. bætra ær stæmma bæk en aa
39. drothin ær aarsins æghare
40. sanka før hunda æn hari løpir ginom by
41. Mange hundha bryta dør ve ær honum thær inne wardhir | takin
42. før wardhir skon armir æn fothin wardhir warmbir
43. godh ware tiwgha ok haffdhe hon twa grena
44. æ giwir gudh aa gøran teen
45. bætra ær thæth thræ som bøghis æn thæth som bristir
46. æ koxar duwa mædhan bughi bændis
47. man gør egh godhan ærkæbiscoph aff een skalk
48. lønlikin thingh skal man lønlika bæra
49. thæth ær onth at binda hæghir i mees 3
50. æ hwarth hæghrin flyghir tha følghir honum stiærtin
51. radh ær ey bætra æn oradh wtan thæth taks i tidh
52. thør træ kofra latan eledh
53. man blæsir thæth i wædhrith som man enom dara sighir
54. fols mans mathir ær førsth æthin
55. konst ær ey byrdhe at bæra tak til vm thu thorf
56. opta gaar makten offuir konstena
57. strykh aff gulfingran ok arwodha for brødh
58. war gamal til houa ok vnghir til klosthir
59. hundhir ær hema diærwastir
60. godh ordh æro gulle bætra
61. han ær godhir som for gudh ær godhir
62. siælwe riwas vlua tha the ey haua kalua
63. kinfethir hawir tappath sin kniff
64. vili ær ey landz ræth
65. wærsthir planz gør blidhan danz
66. diæwlsins thorn gør hiærtat forn
67. lath han hawa thær gudh an
68. thæth dughir ey at gylla som ær gul wært
69. J thysto vatne æro orma værste
70. skogh hawir øron ok mark hawir øghon
71. wluen bithir ey lamb a the mark som han ær wan
72. flykkit hænghir ey swa høght at hundin væntir sik ey benith
73. hunghir ær i heelbroghdha magha hetast
74. æ røris kiiff aff thæth værra hiwl
75. ondh roth fødhe aldhre godha fructh
76. nødh brythir lagh
77. brunganggol kanna kombir siællan heel heem
78. hwar som olagh fæsthir honum olagh gaar
79. bætre ær thwnth øl æn tompt kaar
80. Man skal smaswen drikka gewa som høkø ok | næpsa som aasna oc fødha som vxa ok kledha som wædhur
81. Jlt ær siwkum at fæktas
82. thæn bænkkir ær væl swawardhir som fatthir ær mædh godhom | quinnom
83. Man kyssir opta the hand man saghe gærna vth aff ware
84. Man skal egh haua twa tunggor i een mun
85. thu skalt ey kiwa mædh thinom foghøta ok mædh thin præst
86. skam ær skæggiothom man ath skælwa
87. alle falla kæmpa sighir løse
88. man githir tampth eth wilt diwr ok egh een ondh quinno
89. han kombir ok fram mædh vxom akir
90. daghs rwm ok natta skal vara mællom hwario bræ ..
91. søth ær at drykka ok surth athir gyælla
92. thæn wardhir tysswa gladhir som a stenen sythir
93. man skal ey vilioghan vxa off fast køra
94. thæth ær ey for godho thæth koon akir i waghne
95. thæn skal til rumpona som kona æghir
96. thæn blæs ey væl at eelde som myøl hawir i munne
97. lika foro ok like funnos fiis fik fiærtins dotthor
98. Man ma ledha vxan til watn ok ey nødha han til at drikka 4
99. aff eth haar ok eth wardhir man skalloth
100. klokir hawir tappath tha owirklokir kombir
101. thæth ær onth byte giwa vth ondh ordh ok taka in stoor | hugh
102. gamblan skal man æra ok thæn vnga læra
103. æ sowir lænia til solin skiin synnan in
104. thæn hawir faa wini som hawir manga grøna graua
105. dødhrin ær os vis ok hans time ær o vis
106. fæghin ær han som fyrme ok findhir han fikh a diske
107. han ær væl værdhir sith køth som supir væl sin kaal
108. Jak dønyr væl hwath thu steekir
109. kasta a krook ok halt vm thu githir
110. langt ær stundom mællom man ok sagha
111. æ ær gamblo træ fal i vaannum
112. hundin skal thiæna hærran ok katthin frwnne
113. æn kombir thæn daghir koon thorff sin stiærth vidhir
114. halfth skræt ordh hawir hwarte stiærth ælla ænda
115. feeto swine ær rat saak giwin
116. wrakt hawir langan stiærth
117. blindhir ær barns maghi
118. døwir hørir nakath ok blindhir seer inthæ
119. thæth ær ængin skam væia them thær bæthir kan
120. bætra ær væia vidh ordh æn vidh hugh
121. syyn ær saghu rikare
122. alth watneth vil til haff flyta
123. ok skal hiælp til gudhz hiælph
124. thæn skal luta som lagha hawir dør
125. thit stundar hwar som børin ær
126. farandæ ær fæstir øre
127. førsta wisin ær borto tha fara biin wil
128. sampnat sil styggir ok stora fiska
129. øl rørir stoor ordh
130. æ wæxæ wælliuga barn tho at the watn drikka
131. thy ær wærldin widh at hwar hawir sina idh
132. gærsam skal man wæl gøma
133. æ kombir frazsare mædh toom bwkh ok hwassan kniiff
134. ondhir ær thæn kniiff ey bithir aff een pungh
135. Thæn skal gøra gagn thær gagn wil hawa
136. æ gaar røkir aff nakro
137. widh æru vægha moth sæl ær thæn som væl gør
138. smam ok smam sankar fatigh kuna sik barn saman
139. honum wardhir radh som rædhis
140. kalt ær qwinno radh
141. radh ær ey bætra æn oradh vtan thæth tax i tidh
142. hwar som hawir flykke ok mølbinga han faar kompana
143. thæth synis wæl a kiin hwar kasi masaar
144. æ vindhir fool førsta leek
145. dødhe æru dødz mansz vini
146. man letar opta æptir thy man vil ey finna
147. siælua riuas wlua ta the hawa ey kalua
148. kombir thu til wlua tha thiwth som the 5
149. æ spør thæn rike hurw thæn fateghe fødhir sik
150. aff hundz stiærth wardhir ey got drykke horn
151. gamul mø slar aal karin syndir
152. krakan ær thy ondh at hoon gaal opta sandh
153. the æra alla glædhi som væl gaar i handh
154. æ gratha karla thørdsmanadha grødha
155. gryn kwærn maal alla handa korn
156. nadhaløst hærskap ær skilth fraan gudz hiælp
157. hwat ær vm hans vredhe som ængin rædhis
158. man skal ey giffnom hæste i mun see
159. hwa fiærran ær diskenom han ær nær skadhanom
160. thæth kostar been at ridha aa staaff
161. gudh weeth hwar bæstir pilagrimeer ær
162. opta faar han fal som adhrom biwdhir fal
163. æ fægnar barn bøttom klute
164. Thær ær goth at væria som ængin vil hæria
165. hwa som ympnith hawir smør han kastar sompt i sin kaal
166. bondin kærdhe jak faar enkte aff søkilsith wtan røkin
167. gæsthir kombir til gardz ok gør sik til hosponda
168. han skal sik siælwir lowa thær onda hawir granna
169. han gaar lankth som makleka takhir sin gangh
170. opta ær wadhin nær sæl ær thæn wælsignadhir ær
171. rør handh ok footh tha hiælpir thik gudh
172. æ ær frwsin jordh for othriffnom swinom
173. thæth faaldir æn hæsthir a fyra been æn hallir ee … | aa..
174. naar milk væxe godz tha væxe mik moodh
175. naar godz gaar aa grundh tha wardhir maalu..dh thyn..
176. førsta strængin ær stinnasth tha bristhir han hælft
177. man kan ey alth i skaalom wægha
178. hundhir løpir om brødhith ok harin vm hwith
179. hwi skal jak taka thorn w annars footh ok sætia i min
180. thæn krokis arla som godhir krokir skal wardha
181. sionghir præstin meer en han gethir jak sprængir ey mina føthir
182. thæth ær onth at dragha widh driiff
183. Mordh maa ey lønas
184. opta giællir dør staffkarla wredhe
185. hwa længe sowir aa sin bæd han faar litit for sith næff
186. Jlt ær ey goth for æn wærra kombir
187. gudh giwir alt goth ok ey ledhir man vxa mædh horn i gardh
188. han giwir litith som siælwir gnaghir sin brødh disk
189. The æru ey alle wini som lee i geen
190. nødh gør næsa diærua
191. thu scal prøua mannen i sith waldh
192. thæn giwir androm litith som sik siælwom goth an
193. fødh kaio hon giwir thik skarn til løn
194. Maal draghir annath fram
195. fførsta goz gaar a grwn tha vaxir fatighdom
196. spoth ok skadhi følias gyærna aath
197. ey kombir skadhi een til by
198. thæth skadha rakkan thæth han leekir mædh hundum 6
199. bætra æro gamwl giæl en gamwl saak
200. thæn pæningh ær ondhir innæ haaldha som wth skal
201. man skal hopas æ thæth bæsta
202. lithit goth skal man høgkth sætia
203. thæn kan illa køra som ey kan wænda
204. thæth ær ilth at wara sinna kunw vndirdaan
205. thæth ær een ondhir fughil som oreenth gør i sith redhir
206. thu skalt taka swarth salt aff ondom giællara
207. mange magha enom hiælpa
208. wluin takir ok taaldh faar
209. man skær langa reem aff annars skinne
210. thæn fughil ær rath krysthir som i handom haffs
211. thæth ær goth i skæro wathne skylias
212. han ær godhir lokka som siælwir wil mædh hoppa
213. enghin frw ær swa bærth hon wil æ hawa een pisse fiært
214. gamul syndh gør nya skam
215. læt saman steen ok jærnstangh
216. æ foorgaar thæth man syn wini sinom
217. hwar skal obudhin sithia
218. førsta twe trætta tha sigha the ey badhe eeth
219. hwar ær sinnæ gawo liik badhe fatigh ok riik
220. hwa wæl æthir han skal wæl drikka
221. ælska skulu vnge sin mæstara grundelika
222. hwilkin kærth vil hawa han skal liwffth lata
223. for eth øgha miste bondin sina kaapo
224. swa fødhir gudh by som biørna
225. litin ær wina røn tho thæth ware ey vtan een bøn
226. man skal sla jærnith tha thæth ær heeth
227. man skal æta korwin mæn han ær heethir
228. førsta howdhit wærkhir tha drøuas alle limine
229. han vækkir iis thær thyrstoghir ær
230. hwa arla wil wardha hærra han ær længe swen
231. thæth køtith ær søtast som næst ær beneno
232. hwa som litith saar han skær litith
233. mærkh storm aff marsswina sprangh
234. thiwin ælska gærna myrkith
235. skyth ær gagn giorth skurith aff flykke
236. aff feete steek drypa søte drupa
237. hwa som nakath wil giwa han skal giwa rath
238. førsta barnith hawir sin wilia tha grathir thæth ey
239. flere æru dagha en thrawa
240. tha jak ma som jak wil tha gør jak som jak ær til
241. faghir ordh frøgdha een dara
242. han hawir æthit skatu ægh som ey kan løna
243. swa gør barn i by som hema ær want
244. hema ær hundir rikast
245. kan thu ey koma owan in thu gak nidhan in
246. langhir siwkdombir ær wiss dødhir
247. længge grathir halffbaart barn
248. nødh gør næsa diærua 7
249. litin hæstir gør stakkota dax leedh
250. man skal blædhia kaalen ok ey skæra op mædh rotum
251. æ kombir winthir ok spør hwat somaar hawir affla
252. thænk at flere æru dagha æn trawa
253. man ma swa dragha fram een skalk at han thænkir sik | wara sin hærra
254. folz mans mathir ær først æthin
255. math kænnir man tala ok kledhe fram gaa
256. wisa barne i by ok gak siælwir æpte
257. een oræthir fangin pænningir han draghir wth adhra tiio
258. hawir jak pæning i punge tha hawir jak math in munne
259. jlth ær at dragha reep widhir rama
260. hwar ær sinne gawo likeer badhe fatikir ok riikir
261. bætra ær een faraosth æn een gasa winge
262. bætre ær heelt æn mædh gulle bøth
263. thæth ær goth at hawa trudith sina barna sko
264. bætræ ær een fughil ij hænde æn fyre i skoghe
265. jlth ær i hwse som ængin ær kwse
266. stakkuth ær høno flugh
267. eykte ær thæth skin ey hawir twa liwska
268. thæth ær synth aa hwsune hwar beenith ær sundhir
269. æ ær thwaghno barne mathir i wanom
270. lithin makth ær vm thæn hedhir æghin dygdh følghir
271. hunda æta annarz manz ærende vp
272. lekarin lekir alt vm vinningena
273. barn sighir gærna santh
274. mykyn ær mathir i gudz kællara
275. litin hundir ær længe vnghir
276. onth ær at wara hwars manz hundh som hwizsla
277. godh ær næpst ær hon ey omykyn
278. thung ær thæn sømpn som syndin søwir
279. for thy æru hws mangh at hwar thykkir sith bæst | wara
280. man throdhir thær gardhin som han ær laghast
281. hwar wte ær stængdhir han ær inne glømdhir
282. jlth ær tome hand at tee
283. man skal fara som førth ær
284. thæth ær een ondh hand ey wær sit eghit howdh
285. thæth ær een vsal man ey kan fly eth hws
286. hwart siw vintra gamalt barn wil sik siæluo bæst
287. soma hawo lykko aa landh ok soma aa strandh
288. wærre ær spot æn skadhi
289. han ær ey bætre som gømer æn thæn som stiæl
290. thær ær onth at stiæla som bondin ær siælwir thiwuir
291. tholik ær thin sannidh som thit fædraaph
292. quarsæta riddar ær raskir vndhir banyel
293. mangh thingh øppas ok sanninden rønis
294. æ geespa fughil aa sith gæth
295. gudh ær allom godhir ok sik siælwm bæst
296. æ kombir weeth mædh vinthre
297. bætra ær swltin hæstir æn toom gryma
298. thær ær ilth i hwse som ænghin ær kwse 8
299. hwa nokath wil giwa lati egh længe dwælia
300. saat ær syzkena wredhe
301. thool ok biidh tha vndhir thu al thingh
302. aff een skalk wardhir ey godh ærkebiscop
303. thæth ær onth skiptæ taka in stoor hug ok wtgiwa ondh ordh
304. hwar som olagh fæsthir han olagh gaar
305. lykkes een dør tha oppas een annor
306. æ wardhir nytthom nakath til wakna
307. swa gør barn i by som thæth ær heema want
308. swa gyrnas soldenar godz som rampn atol
309. æ minnes finghir hwat fordhom giordhe
310. vslo ok arme æru konunga flæste
311. førsta sannind møte tha hawir scrok skam fore
312. æ swikas the sworno ok ey the boorno
313. æ mæn mannen ær onæmdhir tha ær han ooskændhir
314. thw skalt ey allom ordhom æta giffua
315. æ fallir aff fataløs byrdh
316. hwar ær swa hædhir som han ær klæddir
317. widh æro wæghamoth sæl ær thæn som væl gør
318. man maa badhe lee ok hawa een faghir mun
319. bætra ær dyrth køpa æn swælta
320. hwa som gæthir han antigia hughir allir sighir sant
321. thæth staar ey til hunda thæth hors dø
322. æ ær søtgærn tunga j hwars manz høøse
323. hawir jak paning i punge tha hawir jak math i munne
324. thæn ær sæl som hwlt hws søkir
325. grath ær mællan wini naar gawo tælias
326. bætræ ær see widh annars skadha æn widh sin eghin
327. frammælth quinna hawir faa wini
328. opta ær skarlakans hiærta vndhir wadhmals kapo
329. thæth ær eeth onth faar ey gethir burit sina wl
330. bryst raadh ær hwariom manne bæzst
331. thu skalt swa drikka blakko som bruno
332. thu skalt stundom koma mædh tiwgho ok ey altidh mædh riwo
333. thærna sæthir hand vndhir kyn ok sørghir æpte graskin
334. tho ath kyrkian ær stoor tha sionghir præstrin ey vtan i eenom | ændha
335. aal høghfærdh fa ondan ænda
336. kombir thu til een daara skær stykkith ok gak fran honum
337. fatigh man hawir ok hiærta
338. førsta hymildin faller tha bristhir margh gryta
339. tha mannin wandas tha villis honum snildin
340. manne ledhis rat widh een math
341. eth litin grandh spillir opta eth goth øgha
342. gudh giwir allom thøm math han skapadhe mun
343. somi nima book ok somi nima hiook
344. hiona troskaph styrkir væl bondans booskap
345. thæn quærnsteen maal ok thær vndhir ligghir
346. Mange æru wini ok faa fult tro
347. dotthor faar gærna i modhors særk
348. gør ey twa magha aff eenne dotthor 9
349. tiisdagh ær tima dagh
350. gærna wil karl kaku winna
351. faa barne sax vm thu wil thæth blinth hawa ok kniiff eenøgkth
352. bradhe mæn æru alle bæzste
353. trwl hawa træleek
354. tagh watn offwir howdh thæth løpir gærna i ærma
355. bætra ær wara feegh i hws æn wtan hws
356. swik ok sqwaldhir ær nw landhsins aldir
357. baar ær brodhorløs man
358. scorwth howdh ær rat brothit
359. rothit ær ødbrwtith
360. han thænkir swiik som smør ystirløff
361. swik ok fals slaar sin hærra aa hals
362. barn kærær siik gratande ok thighir hwat thæth hawir bruthit
363. blomsthir ær fructsins fæstægift
364. æ giøs thøm gambla tho at han widh eldh sitir
365. thit kombir watn som warith hawir
366. thæn rike spør hwru thæn fateghe sik nærær
367. thæn stæn wardhir ok wathir thær marghe sputta vppa
368. thæn smakar ethir som maknt watn drikkir
369. han wardhir hulpin som gudh vil hiælpa
370. æ fæghnas hioon hullom komande
371. hani ær heema diærwast
372. hwa fool kænnir han køpir han eygh
373. dragh leghodrængh til howa ok haff skam fore
374. ilth ær kynnom kasta
375. meer wil æ meer, swa wil mæt kærlingh grøth
376. onth ær æta kirsebær mædh hærra baarnom
377. wani bidhir bæst
378. thær groor som hængnas
379. fatigman høghburin ær laghir i hedhir
380. barn skal krypa til thæth nimbir gaa
381. lithin thwua vælthir opta storth las
382. affwil følghir wild om thæth wardhir ey spilt
383. godhir wili draghir halfft las til by
384. bætra ær fly æn illa fæctas
385. hærra hyllist ær ey halla langh
386. ørløghs mære æru dødhe mæn ok sare
387. nær herdhin ok wlwin dragha ens tha hawir hiordhin tappat
388. man takir ey stora fiska i grunth watn
389. ilth ær kynnom kasta
390. the lithla scuto ganga tha the stora liggia aa lande
391. swa grympta grise æpte som gamwl swin fyri
392. thæth thiwtir alt aff wluom ær komith
393. man faar oppta loff for litith
394. kasta aa krook ok halt vm thu gitir
395. æptærsta bikarin giwir vth førsta huggit
396. hwa margh jærn hawir i eldhin han kan thom ey allom skøta
397. onda yrthir skal man aff yrtagardh lykkia
398. honum wardhir radh som rædhis 10
399. man skal ok iilla stædhia sompt, som man aftlar
400. hwa alt sith wil gøma han kan ey annarz mans niwta
401. bætra ær køra æn dragha
402. een saar ok annar skær thæn tridhi wæth ey hwat han ffaar
403. glugguth ær gæsta øgha
404. æth som hema staddir ok drik som gæstbwdhin
405. halt thin owin ey alt offsnødhan
406. latir gaar nøghoghir aa stenoghom wægh
407. thæn rædhis koma i sæk thær førra i hawir warit
408. for thy wardhir allir mathir ætin at somi æta kalen ok somi krasen
409. honwm træghar thæth han lewir som ræknar thæth han æthir
410. soma hawa hæl ok somi hængia widhir
411. thæth ær lika at honwm swidhir som vndhir mighir
412. thæn brythir skip som skip hawir
413. hwar ormen trædhir a stiærtin han wændhir æ howdhit in geen
414. tha stekaren kiwar wardhir kalen føthir
415. thæn bidhær ey længe thær godhan faar daghwardh
416. thæn ær næst i handom hawir
417. hwa som kastar bwlyxe t varom hærra han kastar nydhio i geen
418. wani bidhir bæst
419. thæth skal een knekehalz koma i hugh at gaseen lutir vndhir væg
420. thæn kan ey stiæla som ey kan gøma
421. staffrande man skal stydhia sik mædh kæp
422. hemelikin hærra gør otroin hioon
423. wilt thu haua eldin tha leta j askonne
424. wærldin ær all wilia drygh
425. siællan ær rapan godh
426. kærlingh tuttar æptir siine thoskæppo
427. thæth ær een ond mws ey hawir meer æn eth hws
428. thæt veth hand som han hawir
429. thæth skiin wtan hwar innan krystir
430. man skal ey rækia foten længir æn skinfældin rækkir
431. mællom twa stola faldhir stiærtin i eldh
432. wænta kombir ey aal i pungh
433. han bedhis thær thorff thæn wethir som vil
434. opta ær hulth hørande nær
435. hwa som i otiidh athir han skal fasta ætande tiidh
436. hema ær bæst at sofua
437. thæth feta wil alt vppe flyta
438. tholik man gaar til dør som inne ær
439. litin ær wilians røøn
440. j thysto vatne æru orma værste
441. man ma ok forsta halft sakt ordh
442. sla gaman til alwaro
443. alt ær karle køpelicth
444. hwa ey waghar han ey vindhir
445. glømdir ær guldin øre
446. styr hæst mædh belz ok kono mædh kæp
447. orm ær opta vndhir blomstrande buska
448. een skæppa mædh wænto ær ey hand ful mædh wisso 11
449. han skæmmir sin mwn som onth rimar
450. swa godh ær een wik i aar som twa i fiordh
451. dyrka thæth nampn gærna som korn giwir ok kærna
452. thæn ær mykith ræddir som ey thorff skælwa
453. thæn ær godh som for gudh ær gudhir
454. siwkdom ok allir kraka til by, gesta sorg at qwælle, ok æru syszkene | thry
455. thær ær hand som saart ær, hiærta som godz ær, øgha som kært ær
456. hwem syndh ær ey ledh, honum ær gudh wredh
457. thæn witnar ey wæl som vredhir ær wtan skæl
458. harm gør hæluite
459. kærlingh skal æ hawa sina thrætto fram
460. eth ær ræth ok annath ær slæth
461. mædhan siwdhir wrangh gryta owir eld mæn ræt gryta | bedhis i by
462. høgth ær hærra bwdh
463. hwart kaar staar sinom butn
464. domin ær ey kær them sik weth wara oskær
465. budhskap ma jak frambæra answar ma jak ey walda
466. bætre ær nadh æn ræthir
467. man faar, ok redho i handom thæth ær ey lika
468. thæn skal søst lowa thær radh skal styra
469. eld i skøt orm i barm mws i æskio ærw onde gæste
470. gamal kathir lapar ok miølk
471. nænningh hawir pæningh
472. ok kombir skadhi for sputtarans dør
473. thæth kostar ok been at ridha aa staff
474. goth ær wara aff godho tughin
475. thæn skal wara thidhen som ey ær kærkomen
476. opta faar man loff for litith ok last for alzænkte
477. thæn ær godhir som glug fyllir
478. nw ligia lagh i spiutstangs ænda
479. hors gællir ondhan køreswen
480. thæn ær gladh som ey weth aff wanda
481. bætra ær wita eld i by æn ondh wana
482. naar ølit gaar in tha gaar vethith wth
483. man ma swa vænias vidh ilt at onth ær fulgoth
484. man gømir ey væl gul vndir geta tungo
485. frændir æru wslom wærst
486. man weth ey hwar lykkan ær mæst
487. thæn hawir hart delomaal thær skæpnan ær wredh
488. deel ey mædh thin domara
489. ær røris kiiff aff ølkwno bodh
490. hwa arla riis han wardhir manx wiis
491. krakan ær ey thy hwitare at hon opta badhar
492. slippirt ær beto skin kasta mik nw piælt min
493. thorgeth ær i goth at thær kombir mangen snok
494. kasta mik hwart thu wilt ok ey i vatnen saghde w…
495. swa skal wsal vthir fla faa hwaske krop alla skin
496. hwasom hawir bal ok staff han far wæl kompon
497. goth ær at leka nar wæl fallir
498. lætum thæn swæria ænga hafuir siælena 12
499. han ær man som manz gærninga gør
500. bætra ær æplit giwit æn ætith
501. hoffhmanna hæsta vilia alle til harff
502. bætra ær siæluir hawa æn systor vidhirthorffua
503. lithin byrdhe ær langh vægh thungh
504. æ lættis mata byrdhe
505. stor skip liggia a lande mædhan sma gaa til sio
506. Røn ær godh drængh
507. bætra ær lykka æn hundradha mark
508. bætre ær skælgh æn blindh
509. æ kombir kringildriff mædh hwas kniiff ok toom bwk
510. ottosangh ær almosogangh ok mæssan hon ær prydha afftonsagh ær spot ok hadh hwar som thæth vil lydha
511. fødh mik i aar jak fødhir tik at are
512. goth thol giwir godhan ænda
513. æ vithnas goth, gladhv hiærta
514. bæthir quæmmir skrapa osten æn skrædha
515. ondh hustru æthir bloman aff aggit ok bondin thæth hwita
516. litin hæst ær i vadhi mæst
517. mange bryta borghir
518. with skal til wanda
519. thæn mik litith giwir han mik lifwit an
520. jak ær i hughin gladh tha hawir pæninga i min pung
521. kasta j iordhans floodh tho ær han ey bætre æn før
522. hwa litith faar han litith skær
523. æ kombir for ok slækkir andra i gaar miste jak min bonda ok i dagh tappadhe
jak minne naal ær thæ sorgh wærræ | som sidharst kombir
524. æ ær ilt rædhandis ok got ær ey ofmykit
525. læt hundh til hunax kaar han springir j mædh badhon fotom
526. æ følghir agærdh wande køpe
527. førsta howdæt wærkir tha førghæ alle limine
528. howdh løøs hær wardhir ey radh fore
529. tholik war thin sænningh som thith fæ draap
530. thæth ær gamal sidh barn gør barns gærninga
531. hon ær modhor som math giwir
532. Manga mys skulu en kat binda
533. thæth ær mws som ma koma i fatigha konu pusa
534. han giwir mws maat som til morghons gømir
535. Mange æro køre swena værst [ær honum draghir
536. Manga handa værningh ær i kræmara bodh
537. Mange æru manz vægha
538. fro ær frælsis framgang
539. alwara ok gaman fallir væl saman
540. jlth ær til vagn tha alle aka
541. faghir ordh frøghda æn dara
542. alla gawor æru godha wtan køluo hwg
543. loffs visa ær manga lunde quædhin
544. alle dø the som feghe æru
545. hwa kan hawa forbyrdh for dødsins aatstrydh
546. thæn steen wardhir ok wath som mange spotta aa 13
547. honum ær ilt at løpa som nødhis til at løpa
548. Thæn ær een dare swa giwir skip at han liggir siælwir a lande
549. J frost ok i køldh kænnir kærlingh sin son at spara | ok tak æ goth hwar thu kan ffa

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Den här artikeln, skriven av Johan Käll, publicerades tidigare på vår gamla hemsida.