The Hanseatic League in Stockholm


After the war between Albrecht of Mecklenburg and Margareta (read more here), Albrecht and his son was imprisoned at castle Lindholmen in the region of Skåne in southern Sweden. In July 1394, after lengthy negotiations, it was agreed that the two Mecklenburgers should be set free for a ransom of an immense sum of money, equivalent to about 8 000 kilos (more than 17 600 lbs) of pure silver. In short, they were to be released for three years, in which they had to come up with the money, and the city Stockholm was to act as a kind of deposit. Stockholm was the only city in Sweden still controlled by the Germans and hence a thorn in Margareta’s side. During those three years, Stockholm was to be superintended by a group of Hanseatic cities (Königsberg, Elbing, Thorn, Danzig, Reval, Greifswald, Lübeck and Stralsund), as the cities had agreed to act as guarantors for Albrecht. For their troubles, Margareta should pay them an annual sum of 2 000 mark for the three years they administered Stockholm. Also, the cities Rostock and Wismar (the heartland of the Mecklenburg dynasty) should help out with considerable sums of money – 1 000 mark per year.

The mission


The 20th of May 1395 the cities met in the neighboring fishing towns Skanör and Falsterbo, at the southwesternmost tip of Sweden and they agreed about their respective contributions to the mission, in wider terms. Here, they also came to terms with Margareta that the king and his son Erich were to be set free the 29th of September. It was agreed that Greifswald, Stralsund and Lübeck should send half of the personnel, equipment and provisions needed. The Prussian cities (the five remaining of the eight) should send the other half.

As an aside, 1395 is a year where the so called Vitalian brotherhood (a group of pirates) starts to take up more and more of the Hanseatic League’s agenda; in September it is decided that a peace keeping/pirate hunting fleet consisting of 11 ships and 1 000 men at arms is to be set up until 1396 to address the piracy problem. 1396 the pirates are mentioned in almost every meeting held by the Hanseatic League, which gives an impression of the situation in the Baltic region.

The Skanör-Falsterbo agreement above states that the eight cities in total should send the following personnel and equipment to take control of Stockholm:

  • 80 good men at arms in full armour (in this case this included torso protection other than chainmail)
  • 60 good crossbowmen with their weapons and including equipment
  • 12 barrels of crossbow bolts
  • 8 stone guns (bigger cannons)
  • 2 lead guns (smaller cannons/hand guns)
  • “A lot of gunpowder, which is needed for that” [the guns]
  • 60 good crossbows including levers and windlasses
  • Two good gunnery masters
  • Two crossbow makers

In addition, the cities sent large amounts of food; in short, everything that was needed to survive was to be shipped to Stockholm, including different food stuffs and tools.

About two months later, in the middle of July, the cities met in the Teutonic order castle of Marienburg/Malpork, where more exact guidelines for the mission are drawn. The troops shipped to Stockholm from the Prussian cities (Königsberg, Elbing, Thorn, Danzig, Reval) are:

  • 38 men at arms
  • 22 crossbowmen

They bring

  • 8 guns of different types, including powder, lead for making shot and peripheral equipment
  • 1 gunnery master
  • 1 crossbowmaker
  • 30 crossbows
  • 4 barrels of crossbow bolts
  • Peripheral equipment for the crossbows

The soldiers

Personal equipment

In the Marienburg meeting it was stipulated that each soldier should be equipped according to the following lists:

Each crossbowman should have:

  • 60 good bolts with tips
  • 3 crossbows (!) – one big, one middle sized and one small
  • A chainmail
  • A “chest” – probably a coat of plates
  • A mail coif
  • A iron hat
  • Plate gauntlets
  • A shield

Each man at arms should have:

  • A “whole plate armour and what belongs to it”:
  • A hood (most likely a helmet)
  • A coat-of-plates
  • Arm protection made of leather
  • A “vorstal” – probably lower arm protection made of steel
  • Leg protection
  • A shield

Curiously, nothing is mentioned of which weapons a man at arms should bring. Perhaps it didn’t matter, as long as they were armed. I have found no similar lists for Stralsund, Greifswald and Lübeck, but most likely those cities sent a similar number of soldiers with similar equipment.


The soldiers going to Stockholm had to swear a sacred oath when signing up for service:

Dys yst der wepenere unde schuczen yet unde buchsenmeystere unde bogenere. Wir sweren und geloben uch, borgermeisteren, ratmannen unde der ganczen gemeyne der stede Thorn, Elbing, Danczik unde Revele, daz wir hern Hermanne van der Halle, euwirme houbtmanne, und unsern eldesten getruwe und gehorsam will zin in bewarynge, in wache, in were des huses, veste und stat Stokholm, unde in alle anderen dingen, des uns van in bevolen wirt; unde van dannen nicht to scheydende, ee ir uns orlob gebit unde andere in unse stat sendit. Das en wille wir nicht lassen durch lib noch durch leyt, daz uns Got zo helfe unde dy heylighen.

This is roughly translated into:

This is the oath of the men at arms, the crossbowmen, the gunnery masters and the [cross?]bowmakers. We swear and promise you – the mayors, the council and all the common people of the cities Thorn, Elbing, Danzig and Reval, that we will be true and obey herr Hermann van der Halle, our noblest commander, when it comes to guarding and caring for the houses, castle and city of Stockholm, and in all other things he will command us; and therefore not to let anyone in [to Stockholm] without permission, in good times or in bad, so help us God and the Saints.

Pay, benefits and conditions

The tour of duty for the soldiers going to Stockholm was to be 18 months long, as suggested by a meeting the 19th of August, 1395.

The soldiers from the Prussian cities were paid both in fabric and in money. The men at arms was to be paid in 6 ells (1 ell = nearly 60 centimeters) of black and brown fabric (probably 2 ells wide) from Dendermonde (in Flanders), from which they should make “wide coats and hoods”, where the black should be on the right side and the brown on the left. The crossbowmen should have hoods in the same colors, plus parcham (a fabric consisting of both linen and cotton) for their jacks/gambesons. The pay also consisted of 5 marks in coin per year for the crossbowmen and 10 marks per year for the men at arms. It is not clear whether similar conditions applied to the contingents from Stralsund, Lübeck and Greifswald, even though it is probable.

In excess of this, the soldiers would probably have had free food, drink and lodgings. But like always, it seems the pay for the contingent was too little and too late. In comparison to other missions (i.e. on peace keeping ships) the pay wasn’t exactly good. In April 1396 a League meeting in Marienburg states that men at arms that goes on the peace ships without their own armour shall have 1/3 of one Mark each week. If we presume that the peace keeping mission lasted for a year (which it probably didn’t), the participating men at arms would earn more than 50% more per year than their colleagues in Stockholm. On the other hand, the peace keepers didn’t receive any fabric, but this doesn’t cover the difference.

That might be why the superior commander of the Stockholm mission, Hermann van der Halle, made complaints about “uncomfortable” individuals in the force; it could have something to do with the talks at a League meeting the 31st of December, 1396, where the gathered representatives decide to postpone the question of “pay for the men at arms that have been posted in Stockholm this year” to an upcoming meeting.


It seems the garrison commander had trouble making ends meet. Van der Halle sent frequent letters to his superiors asking for the most basic commodities to be shipped from Germany, which indicates the contingent couldn’t easily get hold of locally produced food; for some reason the force couldn’t even use the mills in Stockholm and had to grind their grain to flour via a hand mill.

This, among other things, were ordered from Germany to be delivered to the garrison: Apples, honey, onions, beer, pork, many different kinds of fish, bread, turnips, vinegar, salt, mustard, different kinds of oil (which could also have been used as fuel for lanterns), flour, malt, hops, peas, horseradish, apples and garlic.

Among the finer foods (probably reserved for the commanders) can be found: rice, almonds, raisin, wine and spice.

The posting


The contingent, commanded by the Danzig council member Hermann van der Halle, who was appointed supreme commander of the mission, reached Stockholm and took control over it the 31st of August, 1395. The day after that, the commander of the Stralsund contingent, Magnus von Alen, arrived in Stockholm with his men. Lübeck also seem to have sent a commander – Jordan Pleskow (who maybe rather wanted to stayed at home in his house on Johannisstraße 20 in Lübeck – we’ll never know). A week later, the 8th of September, the cities promised the Stockholm burghers the same freedoms as they had under the reign of King Albrecht, and the burghers – in turn – promised to be true to the trustees responsible to administer the pawned city.

The keepers of the castle, which consisted of Albrecht supporters, among others Hinrike von Brandis and Otto von Peckatel, had been informed of the turning of the tide beforehand; the Hanseatic League wrote them a letter a month before van der Halle and his troops arrived in Stockholm. Von Brandis and von Peckatel handed the city over to van der Halle without much of a fuss.

We are presented with information that paints a picture of Stockholm castle in disrepair, and probably the soldiers were put to work to repair everything, including the lodgings that had been built by private persons in the castle. The inhabitant of said lodgings – the duke Johann von Mecklenburg (a relation to King Albrecht) asked van der Halle’s permission to remain, something he was denied.

The soldiers had nevertheless to undertake what was most likely extensive renovations; the walls and roof of the castle was in a sorry state, and the cities demanded that the renovations were kept cheap. Also, the old castle commander “borrowed” a lot of kitchen equipment and a stone gun, which needed to be replaced. To assure that the borrowed gun shouldn’t be used against the castle by the leaving force, van der Halle decided to buy it from the leaving Albrecht supporters.

A less than desirable task

Hermann van der Halle didn’t seem too happy with his task. His letters back to his superiors are full of new requisitions as the victuals always ran out. Already the 19th of September, 1395, the council of Marienburg addressed van der Halles requisition for onions, garlic, herbs, fruit, honey, cod, beer, wine – and “6 or 8 big hounds, that we need so well for the castle”. Seven days later the council at Marienburg addressed a second requisition of malt, barley, more beer and wine, flour, fish, vinegar, onions, more dogs, two big ships to defend against the Vitalian brotherhood, wooden boards, (lots of) shovels and brick trowels.

In June 1396 we learn that Stockholm castle had been divided between the Stralsund forces of Magnus van Alen and the forces of Hermann van der Halle, where the Stralsunders were using the tower for their needs and the other troops occupied the courtyard (probably in the buildings erected by duke Johann von Mecklenburg) plus a cellar belonging to the keep, as they had agreed on that this was the best way to defend the castle.

Risky business

However, it seems the stay in Stockholm wasn’t only hard work; the Vitalian brotherhood was increasingly seen in and around the city – both as visitors (even as guests of the Stockholm council during wintertime, something that worried van der Halle) and as pirates. In April 1396, the cities asked van der Halle to send what troops he could spare to the peace keeping mission against the brotherhood being set up by the League.

In June he reported that “a good hundred” members of the brotherhood, that had spent the winter in Stockholm, finally set off for Russia under the command of eight commanders in eight freight ships and with “gunner boats”. Van der Halle made them promise not to go after the Hanseatic merchants or cities in Livonia before they left.

In August the same year, van der Halle reported several incidents involving the pirates and merchant sailors; the situation was clearly becoming more and more dangerous for the Stockholm detachment.

Furthermore, some things indicate that the commander didn’t quite trust all of his men, as he asked his superior’s permission to send some of them home: “if they don’t please me, I want to [be allowed to] tell them: ‘Go home!'”.

It seems Hermann van der Halle was also worried about the agents of Margareta; the queen invited him to meetings several times during 1396, but he never left his post. Even when the queen sent her envoy, Sten Bengtsson, to visit Stockholm, he had to announce his visit some day ahead to be let inside the gates. The queen’s envoys also demanded (according to their view of the peace treaty) that he should open the gates to 300 Swedish burghers that had been banished from the city due to their lacking loyalty to King Albrecht. Van der Halle asked his superiors for orders concerning this, but had a hard time stopping the said burghers from coming and going to the city.

By this, we can assume that the soldiers of the League was in a constant state of readiness.


Hermann van der Halle’s successor, Albrecht Russe, arrived in Stockholm in the beginning of October 1396, accompanied by an experienced old fighter and diplomat, sent by the Elbing council. His name was Claus Wulf and he had commanded soldiers since at least 1386. Likely he was sent to command the Elbing contingent, under the command of Albrecht Russe. Russe assumed command over the garrison and no sooner, Hermann van der Halle borrowed 100 marks from Russe and left in the first ship available. More than a year later he is still struggling to get the League to pay him what it owed him for his expenses in Stockholm.

If Albrecht Russe thought he would have an easy time, he was mistaken. He had to deal with the same troubles that pestered van der Halle. He hadn’t enough men, although he had too much men to feed them properly, he had to address the issue with “uncomfortable” and probably bored and restless personell and he was working at a place where he was less than welcome by the populace and by the pirates.

However, he seems to have had his ear to the ground, as he picked up a subtle warning about events waiting to occur during the summer of 1397. When commanding Stockholm castle, Hermann van der Halle had feared that a Swedish nobleman named Algot Magnusson had struck some kind of a deal with the Vitalian brotherhood. His fears seems not to have been ungrounded, as a man came to Russe, warning him of an imminent danger. The 28th of June, a big fleet of the brotherhood arrived in Stockholm, issuing demands. One can imagine the commotion in the castle when the 100 or so soldiers at some hours notice tried to ready the defenses against a force that was 1 200 men strong. Later, Russe told his superiors that he and his men had been nowhere close to ready or strong enough, and that the city would have fallen if the brotherhood had attacked.

In January 1398, Russe complained that Margareta didn’t send money for the upkeep of Stockholm, as agreed. At the same time he asked for provisions (as always) and to be relieved of his post the upcoming easter. In the agenda of a late February League meeting the participants urge that Rostock and Wismar should pay what they owe for the keeping of Stockholm. Money was, as usual, a problem.

In May 1398 a meeting at Marienburg decided that every city involved in the mission should send 3,5 Mark worth of victuals per soldier from the city in question – a grand total of 300 Mark. This is a bit interesting as it gives us an approximate number of the garrison. At this time it seems the force in Stockholm was about 85 men strong. Maybe some of the “uncomfortable” elements were sent home?

After this, the annals of the Hanseatic League doesn’t mention the Stockholm garrison much. The times Stockholm are mentioned, it is regarding its surrender to Margareta.


During the spring of 1398, Margareta corresponds with the cities about her accession of Stockholm. The 12th of August she states that if King Albrecht hasn’t payed his ransom by the 24th, she will ask him to surrender Stockholm to her. The 29th of August, she – along with her son Bogislav (now king of Sweden) – grants Stockholm all of its previous rights; as history tells us, the king couldn’t come up with the money. The contingent from the Hanseatic League leaves the city the 29th of September and Margareta takes over. The mission is accomplished and the soldiers return home – or sets off to find the next filled purse, perhaps as part of the ever ongoing war against the Vitalian brotherhood.

The supreme commanders from Prussia

Hermann van der Halle

When the cities’ troops first arrived in Stockholm – in August 1395, they were supervised by the Danzig council member Hermann van der Halle, as mentioned above. He was sworn in as hovetman the 1st of August, where he specifically asked that his mission as commander over Stockholm should last no longer than a year.

He had the responsibility to keep Stockholm safe, which was easier said than done. Hermann van der Halle’s letters often include reminders to his superiors that he was promised to be relieved of his post after one year; it is clear that he is not very happy in Stockholm. Maybe it had something to do with the people he was forced to work with; in July, 1396 he thanked his superiors for the long asked for permission to send “uncomfortable” individuals home. Probably he was referring to members of the Thorn contingent – he made complaints about them at a League meeting in March 1397.

The 15th of June 1396, his supervisors sent him an eagerly awaited letter – he was to be relieved – as promised – by the Thorn council member Albrecht Russe. The 3rd of September he seemed somewhat anxious to learn that Russe had fallen ill in Lübeck. In the end of the same month, van der Halle himself fell ill, and as he experienced that he was of no use to the garrison, he desperately asked his superiors to send another commander as soon as they were able.

He seems to have pulled through, though, as he was present at a League meeting in Marienburg, the 31st of December, 1396.

Albrecht Russe

The Thorn council member Albrechts Russe (or “Albrecht Rusze” as he spelled it himself – an indication of his perhaps Russian descent) was appointed council member of Thorn 1393. This might well have been his first commission, where he acted as a representative for the city at various League meetings. During his career he also acted as a bailiff, mediator and solicitor, as well as councillor and mayor in the same city. He acted as a diplomat during various diplomatic postings, and was probably also a shipowner responsible for Thorn’s trading relations with Poland. A heavy weighter, no doubt.

In 1396 it is decided that he is to succeed the commander of the Stockholm garrison, Hermann van der Halle. The 14th of September 1396, Russe sends word that he plans to depart from Wismar to Stockholm the 29th of September. It is probable that he arrived in Stockholm less than a week later, which means his predecessor could take the first boat home and the heck out of Dodge during the first days of October.

Russe assumed command at the most critical period of the Hanseatic administration of the Swedish capital. The evening of the 29th of June, 1397, a fleet of 42 ships and 1 200 men, commanded by “Otto von Peckatel [former commander of the Stockholm garrison], Sven Stur, Crabbe, Egkart Kale, Kawle and other commanders that I do not know” reached Stockholm. It was a fleet belonging to the Vitalian brotherhood. It had sailed from Gotland where King Albrecht’s son Erich had put up his headquarters, along with several notable nobles – among others the duke Johann von Mecklenburg who was evicted from his house in Stockholm castle in 1395. This means that Erich von Mecklenburg took active part in the piracy that Margareta, the Teutonic order and the Hanseatic league was trying to thwart, even though he was released on bail. Perhaps this was his way to raise money for the ransom. Either way: talk about stirring the pot…

Russe sent a letter to his superiors recounting what had taken place that evening. Its contents were read out and addressed at a League meeting in Danzig the 2nd of July, three days later.

The two sides met at a small isle outside Stockholm to parlay. The fleet commanders demanded to be let inside the city, but the officials of Stockholm refused. The fleet then demanded 10 000 loaves of bread and 20 “last” (= 200 plus barrels = more than 43 000 liters) of beer. The commanders of Stockholm refused a second time, and the fleet commanders asked to buy the commodities they needed. Again they are refused; the Stockholm officials suspected treason as Albrecht Russe had received a warning some time earlier.

He tells his superiors:

A good man came to me and told me to guard the castle well – or be in dire hardship. Then I told him: “My dear friend, can’t you speak your mind?” He said that he couldn’t tell me. He kneeled, and put two fingers on a brick, and spoke thus: “Brick! I tell you this, as God and the Saints help me: Stockholm is betrayed!” He rose and reached his arms towards the sky and spoke: “So help me God until my last day – what I have sworn here is the truth!” He would tell me nothing more.

After this, Russe asked for more provisions and reinforcements (“good people”) as he believed Stockholm to be in real danger. However, the fleet departed and left Stockholm alone. The League responded by ordering that one of the gates in Stockholm should be walled shut, perhaps as part of the defenses against the brotherhood.

Like his predecessor, Albrecht Russe constantly asked to be relieved, which makes you wonder what kind of a place Stockholm was. In late summer 1397, the League sent him a letter and told him that he, in time, was going to be relieved from his post by a representative from Elbing. It is uncertain if he ever was relieved or if he remained on his post until the mission in Stockholm ended.

“Här lyktas Konunga styrsl” – kort om 1300-talets fursteideal.

Jag har tittat lite närmare på vår svenska furstespegel Konungastyrelsen  och idéerna bakom medeltida rådgivningslitteratur, som jag tänkte presentera i en kort serie om 2-3 blogginlägg.

/F. Carrasco


Del I. Om medeltida furstespeglar

I sin strävan att legitimera och stärka sin auktoritet vände sig de medeltida kungaätterna till den katolska kyrkan. Den byråkratiska och institutionella kapacitet som kyrkans stöd medförde innebar att politik och religion blev starkt sammanbundet. I utbyte mot sitt stöd strävade kyrkofäderna efter att fostra regenterna till att styra sina riken i enighet med den kristna läran. I denna fostringsprocess författades så kallade furstespeglar, på latin specula principis, i syfte att instruera de världsliga härskarna i sina plikter och skyldigheter samt att klargöra att kungen var insatt i sitt ämbete av Gud. Kungatiteln utökades med beteckningen Dei Gratia eller av Guds nåde genom den kyrkliga ritual som blev allt vanligare, framförallt bland de karolingiska kungarna på 700- och 800-talen, där kungen kröntes av påven.

Med tiden ökade de påvliga ambitionerna att stå över de världsliga ledarna och politiska tvistemål uppstod. Framförallt handlade konflikterna om vilka av ledarna, de andliga eller världsliga, som hade rätt att ge biskoparna investitur. Konflikten kulminerade under senare delen av 1000-talet då den tysk-romerske kejsaren Henrik IV, efter att ha blivit bannlyst och inför risken om inbördeskrig, tvingades söka bot hos påven. Investiturstriden såg sitt slut genom konkordatet i Worms år 1122 då Henriks efterföljare gick med på en kompromiss som innebar att kejsarmakten stärktes i Tyskromerska riket, medan påvens auktoritet stärktes i de italienska staterna.

Efter maktkampen kring sekelskiftet 1100 tvingades regenterna söka nya teorier för sin auktoritet, och i samband med översättningen av Aristoteles ”Politiken” på 1260-talet öppnades nya filosofiska möjligheter. Marsilius av Paduas ”Fredens försvarare” från 1324 genomsyrades av den aristoteliska läran och skildrade staten som en organism där kyrkan ingick med enda syfte att predika och förmedla sakramenten. Vidare skrev Aegidius Romanus under 1280-talet De regimine principum, vilken översattes till franska (Livre du gouvernement des roys et des princes) åt Kung Filip den sköne. Intressant nog beställdes ytterligare en översatt utgåva av en borgare i Orléans.



Originalskriften av vår svenska furstespegel Konungastyrelsen (Um Styrilse Konunga ok Höfdinga) har tyvärr gått förlorad. Däremot existerar fragment från en avskrift daterad till senare delen av 1400-talet, vars ursprung spårats till Vadstena kloster. Det avskrivna fragmentet som består av två blad folio skrivna på pergament, upptäcktes under 1860-talet i Finland där det använts som omslag till en räkenskapsbok från 1563. En fullständig avskriven utgåva av Konungastyrelsen publicerades 1634 av Johan Bure och utgör idag den enda kompletta kvarlevan av texten.

Bure skriver i inledningen på sin utgåva att han återgett texten ordagrant, något vi enligt filologen Lennart Moberg inte kan ta för givet. I en av Bures tidigare texter som han kallat Vttydhning (Uttydning) framgår det nämligen tydligt att vissa ord och stavningar i Konungastyrelsen korrigerats eller lagts till. Moberg menar dock att textens ursprungliga fornsvenska är så pass märkbar att vi endast i undantagsfall kan räkna med Bures korrigering, som i dessa fall syftar till förtydligande eller kompletterande parenteser. Bure verkar med undantag för de tydliga 1600-talstermerna balkar och flockar som i texten fungerar som kapitel, ägnat originalskriften stor omsorg och endast korrigerat i syfte att göra den mer begriplig. Den svårtydda fornsvenskan är något Bure även beklagar sig över i förordet på sin avskrift.

Dateringen av Konungastyrelsen har debatterats inom forskningen under det senaste seklet. Utgångspunkten för textens tillkomst fixerades av K.F. Söderwall i verket Studier öfver Konunga-styrelsen. Söderwall uppmärksammar olika språkdrag som tyder på att texten är skriven på klassisk fornsvenska och att den därmed inte kan dateras senare än till 1300-talets mitt. Tidigast tillkomstdatum borde ligga strax efter 1280 eftersom författaren till Konungastyrelsen tydligt använt sig av Egidius Romanus furstespegel som förebild – bara titlarna är misstänksamt lika på respektive språk.

Skriftens uppfostrande retorik pekar onekligen på att den författats åt en ung (kanske till och med) omyndig kung, det har därför varit av stort intresse för forskare att konstatera vem författaren egentligen var…


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Lite över 1 000 fornsvenska ordspråk, del 2

Fortsättningen på Lite över 1 000 fornsvenska ordspråk, del 1
550. hwar sælskap læggir mædh gudhi han skils ey væl fran honum
551. smiidh hawir thy tang at han vil sik ey brænna
552. goth ær sinne tungo styra at han skal ey tala illa
553. bætra ær halfft brødh æn alth mista
554. for wil jak æta hundin æn han æthir mik
555. man kan ey thiæna thwem hærram til hyllist
556. hwær sik æthir ey mættan han slikkar sik ey fullan
557. thæn vil ey længe bidha som ey vil ymst bidha
558. ængin vardhir til skam wtan han gør sik hona siælwir
559. ænging dør aff høzslom
560. nødh kænnir nakoth kona at spinna
561. thæn grathir ey æpte gul som thæth fik ey ægha
562. een skalk weth ey huru en godhir man sik nærir
563. aldhre faar gyri nogh
564. man skal ey forsma gambla vini ok egh gambla vægha
565. thu vesth ey j hwat brunne lænkst ær vatn
566. een matgirugh man ok wsøgha latir sik ey nøghia
567. vara thina hand at hon ey bikas
568. hwa ey waghar han ey vindhir
569. han skal vakin wara som godz skal gøma
570. drukkin man ok galin skil ey meer at æn søfn
571. mik ær ey gangn at the øgha jak ey see mædh
572. ey dughir kasta dyra stena for swin
573. haarkniiff swikir opta vnga quinno
574. ængin gør sik til trwl wtan han ær een dare
575. sla wgglo widh steen ok steen widh vgglo thæth gællir æ vglo been
576. thu skalt ey giffua barne mæn thæth bedhis | ok ey hund swa tiith han sin stiærth rørir
577. han dør ey aff hungir som dyrth køpir
578. thæn steen som oppta røris han wardhir ey mosughir
579. thær ær litith at køni tha knæn liggia i askonne
580. man thorff ey binda klokko a een skalk
581. thæn mætte weth ey huru thøm hungrugha likar
582. thæn heelbrogdhe weth ey huru thøm siwka edhir
583. thæth ær olika laatir en leer ok annar gratir
584. thæth kombir ey alth foor øghon som man ægha faa
585. thæth wardhir ey alt rægn som molnar
586. thæth ær ey goth at stinga biorn mædh naal
587. eth trwl bithir ey thæth andra
588. ne ok ja æru lang trhæta
589. jak slaar ey wht thæth fula watn før æn jak faar thæth rena
590. thæth swarta kiws ey alth
591. fathighx manz thingh koma ey aal sændir
592. faar jak miølkena jak giwir ey vm kona
593. man seer ængen man længir æn til tannanna
594. the æru ey alle jæghara thær blæsa i horn 14
595. thæth ær ey goth at flygha for æn man hawir fiæd …
596. dødhrin blæse ey i ludh for sik
597. ey æra alle fughla høka
598. geenslagh ær ey forbwdhit
599. kærlinga baklwth ær ey goth gwlfingran
600. thæth ær ey goth at kiwa wid sin domara
601. thæth ær ey alt gwl som glimar ok ey alt fiilsbeen som hwit ær
602. ey kombir hwal hwar dagh til land
603. ey ær goth stinga hand mællom træ ok barken
604. man skal ey siwdha alt thæth som lodhit ær
605. koon giwir ey miølk mæn konan vil
606. ey ær kaalen thæs værre throande thæth han rindhir ey vpp i førstone
607. ey ær jak greue tho at jak brødh lewe
608. giff ey swa ængle at thu gaar siælwir aa gænglo
609. ey ær thær goth stiæla som bondin ær siælff thiwff
610. barnslikt ær rosa for offøth nøt
611. thæn mistir ey som først faar
612. smaka ey før æn thu faar ok æth ey thæn liwande gaar
613. ey æru alle the thær kæte kunno vmbæro
614. wlff ær ødhkændir man
615. hwariom ær sin sør søth ok sin angir ledh
616. sæt ey fult bikara ok soff ey mædh møø
617. man skal ey klaa thær som ey kleyar
618. takir thu widh bikar tha takir thu widh gældh
619. æ liffwir gumme mædhan gudh wil
620. thw skalt ey hawa holk vndhir balke
621. ængin vindhir vtan han vaghar
622. vgglhopir menar wara skipsfør
623. han thorff ey læra aff androm som nakath kan siælwir
624. the køna ær ødhkænd a næsum som vamba kluta hawir | fala
625. han ær owis i sith eghit hws staar
626. the quinna ey wil gangn gøra hon fyndir mykit til swars
627. tombir kællare gør galna deghio
628. Onth øgha skulde aldre goth see
629. æ lekir tunga a tanne sarast
630. aff litin suikk wardhir ffa man riik
631. jak giwir mith hoph ey for hundradha mark
632. Tombir skal æ nakath tøta
633. æ gespar fughil a sit gæte
634. ey kombir hwal hwart aar til lanz
635. hwar man lowar sina wærning
636. hwar man ær sin eghin smidh
637. modhor ær bæst lækiare til sith barn
638. æ ær frusin jordh for otrhiffnom swinom
639. læt thæn gambla radha
640. bætra ær konne bisa for brymse æn for kæp
641. Oreen hand gør fetan mwn
642. gudh giwir allom math them han gaff mwn
643. Værldhin ær aal wilia drygh
644. alt forgaar wtan gudz miskundh 15
645. vngir ængil ær gamal sændin
646. hwat kærir thæn blinde wtan sin øghon
647. swangh kiin wardhir opta dysins iidh
648. mwn føt magha grøte æ ær wamb ve | som for war mwnne
649. hawir jak pæning i punge tha hawir jak math in mwnne
650. manga æru wra i wredz mans munne
651. hwa opta hwiskar han hwghir somth
652. æ wæxe rakka tan mæn gamal hundir bithir been
653. flykkit hængir ey swa hogth æ vænthir hundin sik beenith
654. thunga ær ey been tho at hon bithir vm been
655. fatigh kona føre høna æg at hon ma ffa gas ægh
656. jak giwir mith hoph ey for hundradha mark
657. Naar armin krøkis tha gapar mwnnin
658. gaar thu j danz see hulikin thu ij hand takir
659. bætre ær een koo mædh ro æn twa mædh oroo
660. saar hugh gør bleka kindir
661. hand skal hand thwa ælla bodha orena wara
662. gør ondhom goth ok bidh til gudh at han løne thik thæth ey
663. Jlt ær at hawa mangh barn ok litin mat
664. foreata gør faghir ætantiidh
665. man ær gærna thæn vaghin eeldhin som bæst brindhir
666. bæthir dragha twe fughla redhir æn een
667. æ søkias sælike saman ridha nidhinga
668. bætra ær wara karl like æn konungh
669. giisl kænnir hæst at dragha
670. Thæn skal fødha dud som ey hawir dyran hæst
671. Ondh ær theen hiælph dragha aff dynone ok læggia | i halmin
672. sorgh gør bleka kindir ok saara braa
673. biærghas alle tha wardhir bodh godh
674. fadhor ok modhor æru godh, ok æn gudh bæstir
675. naar fatigh man faar kæte tha faar han mangh wlæte
676. fatigh mans fora ær ful wæ kændh
677. hwa længe liggir a sin bæd han ffar litith for sin næb
678. ffaa hawa ødhen alle hawa dødhin
679. fridhin ær ey swa godh at han hawir æ skadhan thær han faar
680. fatigh man hawir æ bo a bachi
681. æ skopar fwl bwk ok ey faghir klædhe
682. swa findhir man lamskin faal som faarskin
683. thæn ær jæm ondhir som haldhir som thæn som slaar
684. hoorkuna wildh ær æ ondh
685. illa skwrith haar ær twæggia kompona skam
686. tro ok otro kunno ey wæl samman bo
687. man ma swa fadhla een buk at han ær bætre æn een hæst
688. fult kaar skal man warlika bæra
689. alt fortappas thæth man til howa læthir
690. hwa ey fødhir kat alla hund han fødhir æn wærra wæte
691. æ groor gangande foth ok swæltir sitiande kraka
692. fotthin slippir til ok krypir aaff
693. awundh rees arla
694. thæn steen wardhir ok wath som alle spwtta aa 16
695. ække ær hwar dagh kaku dagh
696. aff dust kaku wardhir mølareen modhoghir
697. kath wil hawa fisk ok wil ey wæta klona
698. aff feete steek drypa ffeete dropa
699. aff kæte skal kat æta musin
700. bætra ær wita eldh i by æn ondan wana
701. fultmoen æple falla gærna
702. kæmpa falla alle sighir løse
703. arens banna bithir wærst
704. æ rædhis brænt barn eldh ok bitith hunda
705. thæn skal hawa thwma aff iærn som ondan man skal fla
706. jlt ær wænia thæth swin w akir som i ær want
707. godhir bidhiare skal hawa godhan syniara
708. opta kombir skwr æpte skiin
709. opta kombir skiin æpte skwr
710. hwar ær diæruastir vm deldan luth
711. ræk ey fotin vndan skinfældin
712. opta kombir swidhi æpte føtan kladha
713. klint wæxir opta æpte hwete sædh
714. makten gaar opta for konstena
715. haff thuman i næffwan vm thik fallir æmpnin
716. faghert ær hwld fiærran been
717. odhyrth vaxir yffrith
718. bætra ær wæl dødh æn mædh sorgh at lifwa
719. wi saghum hællir annars mans lyte æn wart eghit
720. man skal næpsa onth barn at thæth wardhir goth | ok goth barn at thæth wardir ey onth
721. leek hwat thu wilt ok ey kiphat sighir scorwoth man
722. gaman ær grøn wndh
723. een geen enum ær arghum leeth
724. man seer opta swa æpte snædhinghin | at man miste daghwardhin
725. daghwardh ær dax fødha
726. fore glømsko gallir man wite
727. thæth ær hardhare æn steen taka thæth ey ær til
728. ffa først ok fla sidhan
729. thæth ær seent at taka hunda sidhan hiortin ær lupin gynom by
730. ey ær gest swa argh at hosbonden skal io hawa | til forna
731. the swarta ko molkar the hwito miolk
732. hwa sik blanda widh sadha honum æta swiin
733. barne ær ødhgiorth grata nær læpan hænghir [aa thy
734. træ fallir ey at førsta hugge
735. thæn første fughil faar thæth førsta korn
736. thæn første skadhi ær bæzst
737. bætra ær heel æn hundradha mark
738. læth byrdh ær lang wægh thung
739. wili ær ey lanz ræthir
740. alla baatan hiælpir
741. bætre ær førra war en æffte snaar
742. thæth ær ey alt got i magha som i mwnne ær søt
743. jak tror bæthir hedhnom pant æn cristne tro 17
744. tombir kællare gør galna deghio
745. onth barn quædhir onda wiso
746. foreata gør faghir æptir ata
747. thæn hunghir ær hestast som næst ær
748. thæn kan best widh wandan som ængin hawir
749. thæth skal meer til hæstin än hwisla
750. man slaar hælst thæn wiggia som ga wil
751. twe magho swa hugha at thæn tridhi hænghir
752. tha thækkis pikan bæst tha hon liggir a bachin
753. ey ær gwl swa røth at thæth gaar ey | wth for brødh
754. goth ær gullith rødha æn ær kakan bætre
755. man skal sik æra tho man eno ware
756. bætra ær tighia æ tharffløst mælt
757. bætræ ær spara fra bræd æn fra bwthn
758. thw skal ey brænna hws for æn hær kombir til by
759. bætra ær swangh hæst æn toom grima
760. Mws hawir mathro tho ær thæth mædh reddogha
761. bætre ær tyswa mælt æn een tidh forglømth
762. bætra ær siælff at hawa æn systor bidhia
763. thæth skal goth brødthiægn wara ey see æpte sin ost
764. dragh hællir sompt mædh manan æn mædh stiærnom
765. tholik ær fructh som træsins dygdh ær
766. thæth ær likt tholikith wptaka som han wtgiwir
767. hwar nimbir tholik konst som han nær ær
768. thæth hws ær loff wærth som diskin gaar thryfwa til grytona
769. æ kombir hwar dagh mædh sinne fødho
770. thæth wardhir illa fwlghit som gratande wardhir ætith
771. hwa sith korn latir a onda quærn thæth wardhir illa malith
772. hwa som dør ægholøs han dør æroløs
773. hwa eldhin vil hawa han skal leta i askonne
774. man skal ey lykkia the øghon som gudh vil see
775. naar fatigh man faar kæte tha faar han mykin vlæte
776. thæn ær gladhir som wæl faar ath
777. hwa mik slaar a halsen han slaar mik ey langt fran howdh..
778. skode hwar sik tha skænde ængin mik
779. hwa ey wil lidha modhor han skal lydha stiwffmodhor
780. thæn ær mykith ræd ey thor skælwa
781. hwa sin hund stækkir ok øpe æptir honom the æro marghe som mædh øpa
782. hwa i geen sla han bryggir kiwith
783. hwar ær wæghdhir bæst
784. hwar illa fallir han illa riis
785. thæth ær ilt at drunkna a thørth landh
786. een ondh hittare ær wærre æn een thiwff
787. thæth ær skyt snyth som ænga æro næsa
788. thræstrænkt ær hwart goth reep
789. hwar ey waghar han ey windhir
790. han thorff ey ga til skogx som rædhis hwan buskan
791. hwar skal mædh sith hæl til howa ridha
792. hwa æ bætre æn annar wtan thæn som bæthir gør
793. hwar ær sinom gawom likir 18
794. thu skalt ey thraa at thy thu kan ey ffa
795. hwat giwir jak vm at hundin gøør ok bithir han mik ey
796. thu skalt ey swæria for oganghit maal
797. thæth ær alt goth aff korne kombir
798. fatiks man ød ær aff hand ok i mun
799. thæn kænnir androm aka æptir som fore akir
800. hwat vnghir nimbir thæt han gamal haldhir
801. thøm wardhir raadh som rædhis
802. bætræ ær thinga widh buskan æn widh boya
803. bætra ær wara mwlakringh æn snutofaghrum
804. hwar rakar eldh til sinna kaku
805. bætra ær wara skælgh æn blindh
806. aal thingh sta aa ænda lykth
807. thæn som hanan wænde honum bør strwpen
808. siællan ær skiptæ bætra
809. rapan ær siællan godh
810. aldrugh manz sægn æ siællan osan
811. siællan gællir hund vidh beenshugh
812. siællan faar lath wlff godha bradh
813. siællan fik spakona godha ændalykth
814. thæth ær qwæmth hawa reent kaar i sinne miølk
815. thæn giwir mæst som minst hawir
816. for thy ær ærwodhe got at godz rægnar ey j mwn
817. wrang hørilse gør wrang framførilse
818. thæth ær opta i karla bo ey ær j konunx bo
819. thæth kombir ok op vndhir snio fiælas
820. man vndrar thæth mæst man seer siællast
821. fatigh man skal ey hawa faghra kono ok ey søtan vxa
822. onth ær at plukka haar aff loffwa
823. thæth man mædh syndom ffaar thæth mædh sorghum forgaar
824. wlff gør saat swin
825. æ leer fool nær han annan seer
826. siællan ær quisthir bwli bætra
827. æ kombir sorgh ok slækkir andra i gaar do min bonde | i dagh tappadhe jak mina naal ok ær thæn skadhin wærre | som senare kombir
828. thæth ær godhir hungnadh at hawa got haldh
829. mædhan thu hawir riwo tha war idoghir
830. swa liffwa høffdhinga aff tækt som fughla aff klo
831. vnge skulu sik idha badhe beta ok barka
832. tak radh aff rødhum flere ondh æn godh
833. man skær siællan goth korn aff ondh akir
834. sompt giældir gudh ok sompt østan wædhir
835. litith ær vm een noth ok æn munna æn kærnin | ær w
836. Man skal lata vp sækkin tha grisen ær giwin
837. Opta ær hwit hørande næst
838. tak swart salt aff ondom gællara
839. lækiare giwir bruthnum hæst salt ok ey altidh iisthir
840. Thæn akir goth las i gardh som godha konu ffaar
841. theen skæppa ær wæl mælth som gællare sithir siælwir wppa
842. æ fallir aff fataløøs byrdhe 19
843. ilth ær thungan steen fiærran kasta
844. samarla magho sate sitia
845. thæn skyleer sik som oreen ær
846. biti biwdhir æ annn in
847. saat ær siskøne wredhe
848. warm sængh ok latir drængh the skilias nødhogh aat
849. thæn helbrogdhe wet ey hurw thøm siwka edhir
850. æ fallir aff farande laas
851. skyth ær fadhlath mædh enne giordh
852. thæth ær opta hæst som gnægiar som føl
853. opta gællir gryta at hon wil gærna aka
854. dyrt klenat gør lustogh syn
855. gærdh swa gardh at thu læggir ey gap widh ændan
856. bygangol høna faar antigia korn ælla knæk i nakka
857. thæn ffaar opta sal som adhrom biwdhir fangh
858. man gør opta lima til sin eghin baak
859. opta wardhir geenstiigh at glappa stiigh
860. opta bedhis han thær budhit flyr
861. hwa ække væl staffrar han ey væl gærdhir
862. laas gør hion saat
863. saar hogh gør swidhande øghon ok fara bra
864. øse thæn thær wakin ær
865. opta ær hwin vndhir hwit skin
866. alle hata thæn som flatir ær
867. opta giællir griis thæth gamal swin haffua til giorth
868. karl kan aal radh tha honum wandas ække
869. thæth ær onth wara syrla føddhir ok arla møddhir
870. giff skalk een span han takir sik siælff een aln
871. wil thu i leek gaa tha skal thu leek halda
872. skyt ær skutith aff stakkot bogha
873. han gælle krop thær ey hawir koo
874. godh ware ynskan ware ey fulskan
875. tro ok otro kunno illa saman bo
876. godh ware hiælp ok ginge ey mathir aat sadhe kærlingh
877. swa ær banna som bi far kringh vm howdh ok ater i
878. pæning ær badhe farande ok komande
879. bætra ær got smør æn swr sildh
880. gøm wæl thin mwn tha gømir thu thin win
881. thaghar twa thorffua tha takir thæn so æghir
882. war skit til hiælps nar næst brindhir
883. thu skalt swa wara kindogh at thu wardhir ey syndogh
884. thæn ær sæl sik kan wænda wanda fran hændhir
885. j trangh skal kam wilia røna
886. thriffwin man wardhir skøt til wakna
887. swa doghir leff som lønt ær
888. æ drømir so vm draff
889. awund rees arla
890. bygh swa boo at thu skadhar ey annat
891. stolt a gatw ok litit i pungh
892. dødhrin blæse ey i lwdh for sik 20
893. hinghir ær hwast swærdh
894. goth thol faar godh ænda
895. han gømir dighirt sina frægn gømir
896. sorgh ær ey systhor hon sithir tho fult nær
897. opta gør litin gnista naghir fwl eldh
898. opta giællir grytan at hon wil gærna aka
899. thæth ær goth at stiækkia sik ey hala
900. thæth ær got mæn apthir wilia gaar
901. thu skalt standa vndir annars mans blus
902. J storm skal man kærast kasta
903. Jlt ær yffrith ont, ok goth ey formykith
904. swa ær at kænna dara radh som sla watn a gaas
905. the æru ey alle som wæl kunno fara mædh kæte
906. thu skalt ey bæra swik mædh thik til thorgs
907. ødhmiwk thiænist faar høgh løn
908. bætræ ær wara kønlik æn konunghxlik
909. bradhlyndh man ær bæst
910. swa gør barn ij by som thæth ær hema want
911. hwar wil sik bæst som siw aara gamal ær
912. swa ær stiwffmodhor widh sin barn som salt i saar øghon
913. thu skalt hawa langa arma vm thu wil hwarz mans mwn halda
914. æ minnis fingra hwat fordhom giordho
915. hwa sina bygningn sætir æptir hwars mans sægn hon wardhir illa | bygdh
916. quinna ær skøt lokkadh
917. æ wil waldh sin wilia hawa
918. tha twa brotas tha liggir thæn thær minna ma
919. eeth skabbot faar følghir gærna andro
920. giwith skal giællas vm vinskap skal haldas
921. farande ær fæsthir øre
922. thu kastar ey æplæt swa langth fra træth | thæth kænnis æ hwadhan thæth ær komith
923. goth barn quædhir godha wisor
924. bætræ ær godh lykka æn høgh byrdh
925. thæth dughir ey at dragha thæn til disk som bwrin æ til wisk
926. alle wilia fool finna ok ængin hema fødha
927. æ staar fool til benith wærkir
928. hwa længe wil sowa han faar litith at duffua
929. thæth ær godhir bwl som axit hawir i ændanom
930. tak swa honagh at bi hawa sina nærningh
931. a moth botaløst maal krista wid riff ok thool
932. fa thinne hustrv thæn stakkota kniiff ok haff siælffwir thæn langa
933. latan skal man fast køra
934. faghom wi til war dødh tha ware war gærningh ey swa snødh
935. bætre ær dwl æ siwk
936. hwa længe liffwir han wardhir gamal vm sidhir
937. gudh sithir offwarla ok seer fult nidharla
938. opta ær stoor ordh i ræddo hiærta
939. halffgiordh gærningh skal man hwaske lowa ælla lasta
940. hwat gøra hors i korn vtan aff axit ok migha i stubban
941. thæth ær onth køra swarth swin owir swidhna ængia 21
942. kæn wlff pater noster han bedhis æ lamb
943. een lismare hawir silke thungo ok blagarns bak loth
944. flathir man sighir jak fik ænkte aff røkilsith wtan | røkin
945. lægh eldh a lowa tha swidhir thik vm handin ok ey vm brandin
946. ffød kaio ok haff skarn til løna
947. thæth ær een dare thær drwnknar aa thørt land
948. hwar skal thær kla som ey kleiar
949. bætre æ oreen kniiffwir gømdhir æn reen glømdhir
950. ilt ær gamblom manne moot bærghe springa
951. J sliko watne æru tholke fiska
952. tholik war quinna som kaal giordhe
953. man skal giwa raadh for illa sudhit
954. man skal enom skalk fylla før øghon æn maghan
955. ængin ær swa godh at han wardhir ey møtthir
956. hiælph til siælff tha hiælpir thik gudh
957. ondh quinna ær diæwlsins dura naghil
958. onth swærdh ær twæggia manna ræzl
959. wærldhin ær ey al wid staka bundin
960. hwa ær swa viis at han rædhis ey sin skadha
961. drinkarum wardhir radh fore ok dubblarom siællan
962. hwa sit spillir han ffaar alt sit næppleka vp
963. gøska skal man wæl gøma
964. sla ey wt thæth wrena watn før æn thu hawir thæth rena
965. saman liggia wædhir ok owædhir
966. wsal man ær wslum wærst
967. bætra ær fly æn illa fæctas
968. thæth ær een ondhir skadhi ængom kombir til gagns
969. ond ær ey godh før æn annar kombir wærre
970. thør widh gør raskan stekara
971. ondh quinna øskiir bondans hææl wara wænt til | gardh ok tæ ij fraan
972. Owilogh vxe draghir krokotta foor
973. tha ær eldhir godhir inne tha ysykil hængir wte
974. thæth ær ont sitia mællom twa eldha
975. jlt skal moth ondo ok bakstaak moth wædhir
976. litin thwa wælthir opta stort las
977. thæn ffaar bør thæth bidhan gethir
978. mykith løpir watn mæn mølnarin soffwir
979. tiidh hawir æro ok tro haffwir brødh
980. kombir thu wid een dara skær aff stykkit ok skil | thik wiidh han
981. grytan lastadhe kætilin we ær thik tha swart thu æst
982. sla leergryto wid steen ok steen widh gryto tha giællir
983. Tærningh ær ond wærningh
984. korn giffwir kako ok hungir køpir leeff
985. swa ær skalk i bland folk som vggla i bland krako
986. thæth ær løøs dræt at dragha mædh halmskakla
987. goth ær wara præstir vm paascha barn vm fasto | bonde vm jwl ok føl vm høst
988. swa skal wæwin wara rændh at thæn godhe | thradhrin ær i wænd
989. swa som gaar aff ræt wægh han skal ey wara | wandin til at taka thæn rætta i geen
990. we ær konne thæn dagh hon bisar fore | spiwth stangh 22
991. hwa som liffwir som flæste honum spotta fæste
992. thak radh aff rødh man hællir ondh æn godh
993. hwa diæwl hawir til skiænkiara han faar brutna | bikara
994. goth ær haffwa mykin math ok manga hælghedagha
995. ny kaar ær hionum kær ok gamwl vm eld fara
996. ve wardhe ondo øgho
997. war antiggia mws ælla man
998. ær lekir rakke mædh gamal hund wil
999. opta æru thriffna hændir vndir riffne kapo
1000. hwa minnis æthin math ok riwin klædhe
1001. jak kænne wæl krassan sagdhe bondin han aat odhyrtena
1002. thæn skam mykyt siwdha som manga wil biwdha
1003. thær quællas ey som quinnor drikka
1004. kærlingh kænde sin son taka klædhe tha daghen ær clarast
1005. thw skalkt ey wara wæmmiol om thu wil frødhin æta
1006. wil tu win vara tha skalt thu eld raka
1007. æ skopar ful bwk ok ey faghir klædhe
1008. æ mæn gawo winna æru dottor ok modhor vini
1009. mykith ær thæth siwkom at lystir
1010. hemol hærra gør otroen hioon
1011. hwa arla wardhir hærra han bliwir længe swen
1012. sarast bithir swlthin flugha
1013. onth ær thæth hors ey thol een kyrkmæssa rydh
1014. thæth wardhir mangt i marghom daghom
1015. hwa som harth niws han faar godha skæpno
1016. lagh lægghir band a at budhordh skulu gømas
1017. thæn thorf ey gaa i skogh alla buska rædhis
1018. thær takir man dygdh som hon ær
1019. hwar ær wægdhir bæst
1020. æ gøs gamal man tho at han vidh eld sethir
1021. thæth ær got at finna sin win a wægh
1022. thædhan ok hwadhan kombir hwar offeghir
1023. hwa margha søkir brunna han findhir ethir i soma
1024. ey æru the alla mør som faghert hawa haar | ok ey alt stekara som langa hawa kniiffua
1025. sombir man miste gærna eth sith øgha vppa thæth at | hans granne miste siin badhin
1026. æ kærir hwar sina queso
1027. thæn skal wæria som ey wil hæria
1028. hunghir ær hwast swærdh
1029. thu skalt stæmpna æpthir æmpne
1030. jlt ær qwikum at brænna
1031. thæssa wærldhinna ødh æ aff skøran malm saman lød
1032. gamwl hærpa ær ey godh at twa
1033. thæth sithir opta a doomstool ey kan skipta hundom swdh
1034. thæth kombir ey alt helbroghdhe aff wlffs mwn som thær kombir i
1035. thæth ær ilt at kænna gamblom hundh at rwka
1036. hwa litith forsmaar han wardhir siællan riker
1037. søthgærn kuna sankar siællan sura miølk
1038. thu takir ey stora fiska w litlo watne 23
1039. wlff takir ey bradh a sinne æghne mark
1040. thæn skal ey wara wandogh at answar som ondh ordh | giwir wth
1041. swa giwir høna aff sith scrap som leon aff sin bradh
1042. swa styres barn aff byrdh som hiorth aff horn
1043. swa ær skalk i scola som fæmpta hiwl i wangn
1044. blæd swa kaal at han ii geen waxir
1045. thu skalt ey tro hæsta foth ey barns bakloth ey hundatan
1046. wipan wil hægna aal markin ok gethir ey wart sith eghit | redhir
1047. thær bithir biorn som bundhin ær
1048. swa grymptar griis om gamol swiin fore
1049. jlt ær rakka leka mædh biorna hwælpe
1050. thæth dughir ey at sighia i vgiorth wædhir
1051. flere folk dræpas aff naatwardh æn aff fwærdh
1052. dødhrin ær kær thøm lukkan ær saar
1053. brænt barn seer widh eld ok bithir for hundh
1054. stakkut hund ok kulloth ko ok litin man æru høghfærdogh
1055. faa wita thiiandis mans tharff
1056. thu gethir ey badhe runnith ok spunnith
1057. kæn wlff pater noster han bedhis æ lamb
1058. sæl ær thæn mædh spæct ma liffwa
1059. thæth thiwthir alt aff wlffwe kombir
1060. gudh kræwir ængin meer æ han formaa
1061. frændhir æru wslum wærst saghdhe ræff til rødha hunda
1062. alle wilia gamble wardha ok ængin gamal heta
1063. stoor hærra wtan swena ær litith wærdhir
1064. Mutor bryta ok steen
1065. klappar thu bondan tha nappar han thik slaar thu honum tha smør han thik
1066. mæra magho twe æn een
1067. eeth goth kastaar ey annath wth
1068. ey æru alle nykla widh eenna kunu bælte
1069. got ær hawa nogh i bwre
1070. stundom fiærran ok stundom flødhir
1071. tha jak ma som jak wil tha gør jak som jak ær til
1072. swa sionghir fughil som han hawir næff til
1073. hwar een wærningh lowar sik siælff
1074. gudh giwir klædhe som kyld
1075. man spør hwru folk skils ok ey huru thæth saman kombir
1076. dottor faar gærna i modhor særk
1077. man soffwir ey alt thæth man snarkar
1078. litith ær vm noth ok æn minna æn kærnen ær w
1079. æ følghir xprist kastadhan math
1080. krist ær thæth nampn thær lykka ær til godha hampn
1081. godh ær fasta tha hon ma eld slækkia
1082. man skal wæia thøm thær wældhe hawir
1083. fly forgylta skalka rædhegrimor ok skopuk | howdh
1084. gør wæl widh ondan ok bidh til gudh at | han løne thik thæth ey
1085. til thæth hws gar barn som værnas

Den här artikeln, skriven av Johan Käll, publicerades tidigare på vår gamla hemsida.

Timeline of Swedish politics 1306-1412

History during the 14th century can be quite confusing, and it’s more or less impossible to write a chronology in common prose. That is why we have made this timeline. Hopefully it will help you out when trying to understand the different schemes, alliances and events that took place during the period.

Click the tiny image to make it (a lot) bigger.


Read the 14th century history of Sweden in more detail in these pages:
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 1 – The beginning
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 2 – The struggle of the lawmaker
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 3 – The age of the king
A 14th century political history of Sweden, part 4 – Defeat and union
This page may also be helpful:
Family tree of Swedish royals during the 14th century

Carrysack from Martebo

We all have things to carry with us when we travel. How they did it back in 14:th century is not always easy to know though. A chest is great for packing stuff in, but somewhat unwieldy to lug around. Some sort of backpack would be handy in those cases, but how did they look back in 14th century?


On Martebo church, on the island of Gotland in Sweden, a lady is depicted in a line of travellers. Over her shoulder she has slung a sort of double sack. This sack is perhaps later known as a ‘fässing’ traditionally in some parts of Sweden. Although it might be have just intended for carrying on foot, it is almost perfect for use on horses to. The picture above is from the first part of 14th century. The sack is very versatile and easy to make. The double compartments make it easier to carry and things will not fall out if it is placed on the ground. There are some different interpretations about where the opening is situated, on one side or centred. I have chosen to have it centred on mine since it is easier to pack and unpack. Especially when used on horseback.

The sack



If it is loaded heavily it will become a bit straining on an untrained shoulder. Changing shoulders will be needed from time to time. Care should be taken to load each side basically equal in weight. When used on a horse, it might be a good thing to have the opening downwards (that is; facing the horse, not the sky). If you have things you want easy access to though, the opposite will be true. As long as it is not raining it will not matter.


The making of the sack

The sack is incredible easy to make. I’ll throw in an instruction just in case someone did not deduct it from the pictures.



This article, written by Johan Käll, was peviously posted on our old webpage.

Lite över 1 000 fornsvenska ordspråk, del 1

Denna text är tagen ur en sammanställning av olika medeltida ordspråk från Fornnordisk Lexikalisk databas. Den spänner över hela medeltiden och kommer ur många olika böcker. En del ordspråk känner man igen och används nästan dagligen även idag. Andra har man ingen aning om vad de betyder.

Någon översättning har jag inte orkat mig på, men fornnordiska är inte så svårt att läsa. Se det som en dialekt, läs högt och lyssna på hur det låter. På den här tiden fanns inga stavningsregler och man skrev som det lät. Stavningen av ett och samma ord kan även skilja sig i samma text.

Något hjälp kan man ha av att Å ofta skrivs AA, Ä- AE eller bara som E och Ö- OE. U kan stå för både U och V ljud (och tvärt om). I och J används som samma bokstav. Th är ofta D, men ofta ett mer tonande som i engelskans Them.

1. Mædh lagh skal man land byggia
2. ware ey lagh i lande tha toghe hwar som finge
3. swa gaa lagh som man hawir tygh
4. nødh brythir lagh
5. nu liggia lagh j spyutstangx ænda
6. lagh æru rætsins budh ok kroka forbudh
7. thu skalt land sidh følia ællir land fly
8. Man skal a lande liua som thær ær sidhir
9. hwar som aarla riis han wardhir mangs viis
10. lænth thingh skulu olastadh heem gaa
11. thwa hundh ok kæmb han ær æ hundhir thæn same
12. thy bruna nothen hawir thæn søta kærnan
13. haandaløs æ anbodha løøs man
14. Thu skalt taka swarth salt aff ondom gyællara
15. samarla liggia ætande tidhir
16. lime gør goth barn
17. latan skal man fast køra
18. egh bær hwar man høøk aa hænde
19. skøth ær gagn giorth
20. æ findhir kaka sin maka
21. mø war blygh som brudh hon sprangh i sængh til drængh
22. æ hwilas oxe mædhan annar dræghir
23. man skal ey wræka swarta hustrv til sænga stook
24. gardh kona skal klyppa kwidh wl ok ey bogh vl
25. Math hawir mænska
26. ffaa giwa dumba lamb
27. thæth ær onth at wænia the swiin v aker som i æro w..
28. thæth fætha wil alth vppe flyta
29. ondhe mæn arom spilla
30. thæn pungir ær tombir som annars pæninga æru i
31. thæth ær goth at simma tha annar haldhir huwdhit vppe
32. kaldhir somar gør heta ladhu
33. siildh ær siælfskiptir mathir
34. siil ær matha vildh
35. thæth ær siælsynth at se hwitan rampn
36. kanna offuir gardh oc annur i geen gør godhan vinsk..
37. Mange bækkia ok sma gøra stora aa
38. bætra ær stæmma bæk en aa
39. drothin ær aarsins æghare
40. sanka før hunda æn hari løpir ginom by
41. Mange hundha bryta dør ve ær honum thær inne wardhir | takin
42. før wardhir skon armir æn fothin wardhir warmbir
43. godh ware tiwgha ok haffdhe hon twa grena
44. æ giwir gudh aa gøran teen
45. bætra ær thæth thræ som bøghis æn thæth som bristir
46. æ koxar duwa mædhan bughi bændis
47. man gør egh godhan ærkæbiscoph aff een skalk
48. lønlikin thingh skal man lønlika bæra
49. thæth ær onth at binda hæghir i mees 3
50. æ hwarth hæghrin flyghir tha følghir honum stiærtin
51. radh ær ey bætra æn oradh wtan thæth taks i tidh
52. thør træ kofra latan eledh
53. man blæsir thæth i wædhrith som man enom dara sighir
54. fols mans mathir ær førsth æthin
55. konst ær ey byrdhe at bæra tak til vm thu thorf
56. opta gaar makten offuir konstena
57. strykh aff gulfingran ok arwodha for brødh
58. war gamal til houa ok vnghir til klosthir
59. hundhir ær hema diærwastir
60. godh ordh æro gulle bætra
61. han ær godhir som for gudh ær godhir
62. siælwe riwas vlua tha the ey haua kalua
63. kinfethir hawir tappath sin kniff
64. vili ær ey landz ræth
65. wærsthir planz gør blidhan danz
66. diæwlsins thorn gør hiærtat forn
67. lath han hawa thær gudh an
68. thæth dughir ey at gylla som ær gul wært
69. J thysto vatne æro orma værste
70. skogh hawir øron ok mark hawir øghon
71. wluen bithir ey lamb a the mark som han ær wan
72. flykkit hænghir ey swa høght at hundin væntir sik ey benith
73. hunghir ær i heelbroghdha magha hetast
74. æ røris kiiff aff thæth værra hiwl
75. ondh roth fødhe aldhre godha fructh
76. nødh brythir lagh
77. brunganggol kanna kombir siællan heel heem
78. hwar som olagh fæsthir honum olagh gaar
79. bætre ær thwnth øl æn tompt kaar
80. Man skal smaswen drikka gewa som høkø ok | næpsa som aasna oc fødha som vxa ok kledha som wædhur
81. Jlt ær siwkum at fæktas
82. thæn bænkkir ær væl swawardhir som fatthir ær mædh godhom | quinnom
83. Man kyssir opta the hand man saghe gærna vth aff ware
84. Man skal egh haua twa tunggor i een mun
85. thu skalt ey kiwa mædh thinom foghøta ok mædh thin præst
86. skam ær skæggiothom man ath skælwa
87. alle falla kæmpa sighir løse
88. man githir tampth eth wilt diwr ok egh een ondh quinno
89. han kombir ok fram mædh vxom akir
90. daghs rwm ok natta skal vara mællom hwario bræ ..
91. søth ær at drykka ok surth athir gyælla
92. thæn wardhir tysswa gladhir som a stenen sythir
93. man skal ey vilioghan vxa off fast køra
94. thæth ær ey for godho thæth koon akir i waghne
95. thæn skal til rumpona som kona æghir
96. thæn blæs ey væl at eelde som myøl hawir i munne
97. lika foro ok like funnos fiis fik fiærtins dotthor
98. Man ma ledha vxan til watn ok ey nødha han til at drikka 4
99. aff eth haar ok eth wardhir man skalloth
100. klokir hawir tappath tha owirklokir kombir
101. thæth ær onth byte giwa vth ondh ordh ok taka in stoor | hugh
102. gamblan skal man æra ok thæn vnga læra
103. æ sowir lænia til solin skiin synnan in
104. thæn hawir faa wini som hawir manga grøna graua
105. dødhrin ær os vis ok hans time ær o vis
106. fæghin ær han som fyrme ok findhir han fikh a diske
107. han ær væl værdhir sith køth som supir væl sin kaal
108. Jak dønyr væl hwath thu steekir
109. kasta a krook ok halt vm thu githir
110. langt ær stundom mællom man ok sagha
111. æ ær gamblo træ fal i vaannum
112. hundin skal thiæna hærran ok katthin frwnne
113. æn kombir thæn daghir koon thorff sin stiærth vidhir
114. halfth skræt ordh hawir hwarte stiærth ælla ænda
115. feeto swine ær rat saak giwin
116. wrakt hawir langan stiærth
117. blindhir ær barns maghi
118. døwir hørir nakath ok blindhir seer inthæ
119. thæth ær ængin skam væia them thær bæthir kan
120. bætra ær væia vidh ordh æn vidh hugh
121. syyn ær saghu rikare
122. alth watneth vil til haff flyta
123. ok skal hiælp til gudhz hiælph
124. thæn skal luta som lagha hawir dør
125. thit stundar hwar som børin ær
126. farandæ ær fæstir øre
127. førsta wisin ær borto tha fara biin wil
128. sampnat sil styggir ok stora fiska
129. øl rørir stoor ordh
130. æ wæxæ wælliuga barn tho at the watn drikka
131. thy ær wærldin widh at hwar hawir sina idh
132. gærsam skal man wæl gøma
133. æ kombir frazsare mædh toom bwkh ok hwassan kniiff
134. ondhir ær thæn kniiff ey bithir aff een pungh
135. Thæn skal gøra gagn thær gagn wil hawa
136. æ gaar røkir aff nakro
137. widh æru vægha moth sæl ær thæn som væl gør
138. smam ok smam sankar fatigh kuna sik barn saman
139. honum wardhir radh som rædhis
140. kalt ær qwinno radh
141. radh ær ey bætra æn oradh vtan thæth tax i tidh
142. hwar som hawir flykke ok mølbinga han faar kompana
143. thæth synis wæl a kiin hwar kasi masaar
144. æ vindhir fool førsta leek
145. dødhe æru dødz mansz vini
146. man letar opta æptir thy man vil ey finna
147. siælua riuas wlua ta the hawa ey kalua
148. kombir thu til wlua tha thiwth som the 5
149. æ spør thæn rike hurw thæn fateghe fødhir sik
150. aff hundz stiærth wardhir ey got drykke horn
151. gamul mø slar aal karin syndir
152. krakan ær thy ondh at hoon gaal opta sandh
153. the æra alla glædhi som væl gaar i handh
154. æ gratha karla thørdsmanadha grødha
155. gryn kwærn maal alla handa korn
156. nadhaløst hærskap ær skilth fraan gudz hiælp
157. hwat ær vm hans vredhe som ængin rædhis
158. man skal ey giffnom hæste i mun see
159. hwa fiærran ær diskenom han ær nær skadhanom
160. thæth kostar been at ridha aa staaff
161. gudh weeth hwar bæstir pilagrimeer ær
162. opta faar han fal som adhrom biwdhir fal
163. æ fægnar barn bøttom klute
164. Thær ær goth at væria som ængin vil hæria
165. hwa som ympnith hawir smør han kastar sompt i sin kaal
166. bondin kærdhe jak faar enkte aff søkilsith wtan røkin
167. gæsthir kombir til gardz ok gør sik til hosponda
168. han skal sik siælwir lowa thær onda hawir granna
169. han gaar lankth som makleka takhir sin gangh
170. opta ær wadhin nær sæl ær thæn wælsignadhir ær
171. rør handh ok footh tha hiælpir thik gudh
172. æ ær frwsin jordh for othriffnom swinom
173. thæth faaldir æn hæsthir a fyra been æn hallir ee … | aa..
174. naar milk væxe godz tha væxe mik moodh
175. naar godz gaar aa grundh tha wardhir maalu..dh thyn..
176. førsta strængin ær stinnasth tha bristhir han hælft
177. man kan ey alth i skaalom wægha
178. hundhir løpir om brødhith ok harin vm hwith
179. hwi skal jak taka thorn w annars footh ok sætia i min
180. thæn krokis arla som godhir krokir skal wardha
181. sionghir præstin meer en han gethir jak sprængir ey mina føthir
182. thæth ær onth at dragha widh driiff
183. Mordh maa ey lønas
184. opta giællir dør staffkarla wredhe
185. hwa længe sowir aa sin bæd han faar litit for sith næff
186. Jlt ær ey goth for æn wærra kombir
187. gudh giwir alt goth ok ey ledhir man vxa mædh horn i gardh
188. han giwir litith som siælwir gnaghir sin brødh disk
189. The æru ey alle wini som lee i geen
190. nødh gør næsa diærua
191. thu scal prøua mannen i sith waldh
192. thæn giwir androm litith som sik siælwom goth an
193. fødh kaio hon giwir thik skarn til løn
194. Maal draghir annath fram
195. fførsta goz gaar a grwn tha vaxir fatighdom
196. spoth ok skadhi følias gyærna aath
197. ey kombir skadhi een til by
198. thæth skadha rakkan thæth han leekir mædh hundum 6
199. bætra æro gamwl giæl en gamwl saak
200. thæn pæningh ær ondhir innæ haaldha som wth skal
201. man skal hopas æ thæth bæsta
202. lithit goth skal man høgkth sætia
203. thæn kan illa køra som ey kan wænda
204. thæth ær ilth at wara sinna kunw vndirdaan
205. thæth ær een ondhir fughil som oreenth gør i sith redhir
206. thu skalt taka swarth salt aff ondom giællara
207. mange magha enom hiælpa
208. wluin takir ok taaldh faar
209. man skær langa reem aff annars skinne
210. thæn fughil ær rath krysthir som i handom haffs
211. thæth ær goth i skæro wathne skylias
212. han ær godhir lokka som siælwir wil mædh hoppa
213. enghin frw ær swa bærth hon wil æ hawa een pisse fiært
214. gamul syndh gør nya skam
215. læt saman steen ok jærnstangh
216. æ foorgaar thæth man syn wini sinom
217. hwar skal obudhin sithia
218. førsta twe trætta tha sigha the ey badhe eeth
219. hwar ær sinnæ gawo liik badhe fatigh ok riik
220. hwa wæl æthir han skal wæl drikka
221. ælska skulu vnge sin mæstara grundelika
222. hwilkin kærth vil hawa han skal liwffth lata
223. for eth øgha miste bondin sina kaapo
224. swa fødhir gudh by som biørna
225. litin ær wina røn tho thæth ware ey vtan een bøn
226. man skal sla jærnith tha thæth ær heeth
227. man skal æta korwin mæn han ær heethir
228. førsta howdhit wærkhir tha drøuas alle limine
229. han vækkir iis thær thyrstoghir ær
230. hwa arla wil wardha hærra han ær længe swen
231. thæth køtith ær søtast som næst ær beneno
232. hwa som litith saar han skær litith
233. mærkh storm aff marsswina sprangh
234. thiwin ælska gærna myrkith
235. skyth ær gagn giorth skurith aff flykke
236. aff feete steek drypa søte drupa
237. hwa som nakath wil giwa han skal giwa rath
238. førsta barnith hawir sin wilia tha grathir thæth ey
239. flere æru dagha en thrawa
240. tha jak ma som jak wil tha gør jak som jak ær til
241. faghir ordh frøgdha een dara
242. han hawir æthit skatu ægh som ey kan løna
243. swa gør barn i by som hema ær want
244. hema ær hundir rikast
245. kan thu ey koma owan in thu gak nidhan in
246. langhir siwkdombir ær wiss dødhir
247. længge grathir halffbaart barn
248. nødh gør næsa diærua 7
249. litin hæstir gør stakkota dax leedh
250. man skal blædhia kaalen ok ey skæra op mædh rotum
251. æ kombir winthir ok spør hwat somaar hawir affla
252. thænk at flere æru dagha æn trawa
253. man ma swa dragha fram een skalk at han thænkir sik | wara sin hærra
254. folz mans mathir ær først æthin
255. math kænnir man tala ok kledhe fram gaa
256. wisa barne i by ok gak siælwir æpte
257. een oræthir fangin pænningir han draghir wth adhra tiio
258. hawir jak pæning i punge tha hawir jak math in munne
259. jlth ær at dragha reep widhir rama
260. hwar ær sinne gawo likeer badhe fatikir ok riikir
261. bætra ær een faraosth æn een gasa winge
262. bætre ær heelt æn mædh gulle bøth
263. thæth ær goth at hawa trudith sina barna sko
264. bætræ ær een fughil ij hænde æn fyre i skoghe
265. jlth ær i hwse som ængin ær kwse
266. stakkuth ær høno flugh
267. eykte ær thæth skin ey hawir twa liwska
268. thæth ær synth aa hwsune hwar beenith ær sundhir
269. æ ær thwaghno barne mathir i wanom
270. lithin makth ær vm thæn hedhir æghin dygdh følghir
271. hunda æta annarz manz ærende vp
272. lekarin lekir alt vm vinningena
273. barn sighir gærna santh
274. mykyn ær mathir i gudz kællara
275. litin hundir ær længe vnghir
276. onth ær at wara hwars manz hundh som hwizsla
277. godh ær næpst ær hon ey omykyn
278. thung ær thæn sømpn som syndin søwir
279. for thy æru hws mangh at hwar thykkir sith bæst | wara
280. man throdhir thær gardhin som han ær laghast
281. hwar wte ær stængdhir han ær inne glømdhir
282. jlth ær tome hand at tee
283. man skal fara som førth ær
284. thæth ær een ondh hand ey wær sit eghit howdh
285. thæth ær een vsal man ey kan fly eth hws
286. hwart siw vintra gamalt barn wil sik siæluo bæst
287. soma hawo lykko aa landh ok soma aa strandh
288. wærre ær spot æn skadhi
289. han ær ey bætre som gømer æn thæn som stiæl
290. thær ær onth at stiæla som bondin ær siælwir thiwuir
291. tholik ær thin sannidh som thit fædraaph
292. quarsæta riddar ær raskir vndhir banyel
293. mangh thingh øppas ok sanninden rønis
294. æ geespa fughil aa sith gæth
295. gudh ær allom godhir ok sik siælwm bæst
296. æ kombir weeth mædh vinthre
297. bætra ær swltin hæstir æn toom gryma
298. thær ær ilth i hwse som ænghin ær kwse 8
299. hwa nokath wil giwa lati egh længe dwælia
300. saat ær syzkena wredhe
301. thool ok biidh tha vndhir thu al thingh
302. aff een skalk wardhir ey godh ærkebiscop
303. thæth ær onth skiptæ taka in stoor hug ok wtgiwa ondh ordh
304. hwar som olagh fæsthir han olagh gaar
305. lykkes een dør tha oppas een annor
306. æ wardhir nytthom nakath til wakna
307. swa gør barn i by som thæth ær heema want
308. swa gyrnas soldenar godz som rampn atol
309. æ minnes finghir hwat fordhom giordhe
310. vslo ok arme æru konunga flæste
311. førsta sannind møte tha hawir scrok skam fore
312. æ swikas the sworno ok ey the boorno
313. æ mæn mannen ær onæmdhir tha ær han ooskændhir
314. thw skalt ey allom ordhom æta giffua
315. æ fallir aff fataløs byrdh
316. hwar ær swa hædhir som han ær klæddir
317. widh æro wæghamoth sæl ær thæn som væl gør
318. man maa badhe lee ok hawa een faghir mun
319. bætra ær dyrth køpa æn swælta
320. hwa som gæthir han antigia hughir allir sighir sant
321. thæth staar ey til hunda thæth hors dø
322. æ ær søtgærn tunga j hwars manz høøse
323. hawir jak paning i punge tha hawir jak math i munne
324. thæn ær sæl som hwlt hws søkir
325. grath ær mællan wini naar gawo tælias
326. bætræ ær see widh annars skadha æn widh sin eghin
327. frammælth quinna hawir faa wini
328. opta ær skarlakans hiærta vndhir wadhmals kapo
329. thæth ær eeth onth faar ey gethir burit sina wl
330. bryst raadh ær hwariom manne bæzst
331. thu skalt swa drikka blakko som bruno
332. thu skalt stundom koma mædh tiwgho ok ey altidh mædh riwo
333. thærna sæthir hand vndhir kyn ok sørghir æpte graskin
334. tho ath kyrkian ær stoor tha sionghir præstrin ey vtan i eenom | ændha
335. aal høghfærdh fa ondan ænda
336. kombir thu til een daara skær stykkith ok gak fran honum
337. fatigh man hawir ok hiærta
338. førsta hymildin faller tha bristhir margh gryta
339. tha mannin wandas tha villis honum snildin
340. manne ledhis rat widh een math
341. eth litin grandh spillir opta eth goth øgha
342. gudh giwir allom thøm math han skapadhe mun
343. somi nima book ok somi nima hiook
344. hiona troskaph styrkir væl bondans booskap
345. thæn quærnsteen maal ok thær vndhir ligghir
346. Mange æru wini ok faa fult tro
347. dotthor faar gærna i modhors særk
348. gør ey twa magha aff eenne dotthor 9
349. tiisdagh ær tima dagh
350. gærna wil karl kaku winna
351. faa barne sax vm thu wil thæth blinth hawa ok kniiff eenøgkth
352. bradhe mæn æru alle bæzste
353. trwl hawa træleek
354. tagh watn offwir howdh thæth løpir gærna i ærma
355. bætra ær wara feegh i hws æn wtan hws
356. swik ok sqwaldhir ær nw landhsins aldir
357. baar ær brodhorløs man
358. scorwth howdh ær rat brothit
359. rothit ær ødbrwtith
360. han thænkir swiik som smør ystirløff
361. swik ok fals slaar sin hærra aa hals
362. barn kærær siik gratande ok thighir hwat thæth hawir bruthit
363. blomsthir ær fructsins fæstægift
364. æ giøs thøm gambla tho at han widh eldh sitir
365. thit kombir watn som warith hawir
366. thæn rike spør hwru thæn fateghe sik nærær
367. thæn stæn wardhir ok wathir thær marghe sputta vppa
368. thæn smakar ethir som maknt watn drikkir
369. han wardhir hulpin som gudh vil hiælpa
370. æ fæghnas hioon hullom komande
371. hani ær heema diærwast
372. hwa fool kænnir han køpir han eygh
373. dragh leghodrængh til howa ok haff skam fore
374. ilth ær kynnom kasta
375. meer wil æ meer, swa wil mæt kærlingh grøth
376. onth ær æta kirsebær mædh hærra baarnom
377. wani bidhir bæst
378. thær groor som hængnas
379. fatigman høghburin ær laghir i hedhir
380. barn skal krypa til thæth nimbir gaa
381. lithin thwua vælthir opta storth las
382. affwil følghir wild om thæth wardhir ey spilt
383. godhir wili draghir halfft las til by
384. bætra ær fly æn illa fæctas
385. hærra hyllist ær ey halla langh
386. ørløghs mære æru dødhe mæn ok sare
387. nær herdhin ok wlwin dragha ens tha hawir hiordhin tappat
388. man takir ey stora fiska i grunth watn
389. ilth ær kynnom kasta
390. the lithla scuto ganga tha the stora liggia aa lande
391. swa grympta grise æpte som gamwl swin fyri
392. thæth thiwtir alt aff wluom ær komith
393. man faar oppta loff for litith
394. kasta aa krook ok halt vm thu gitir
395. æptærsta bikarin giwir vth førsta huggit
396. hwa margh jærn hawir i eldhin han kan thom ey allom skøta
397. onda yrthir skal man aff yrtagardh lykkia
398. honum wardhir radh som rædhis 10
399. man skal ok iilla stædhia sompt, som man aftlar
400. hwa alt sith wil gøma han kan ey annarz mans niwta
401. bætra ær køra æn dragha
402. een saar ok annar skær thæn tridhi wæth ey hwat han ffaar
403. glugguth ær gæsta øgha
404. æth som hema staddir ok drik som gæstbwdhin
405. halt thin owin ey alt offsnødhan
406. latir gaar nøghoghir aa stenoghom wægh
407. thæn rædhis koma i sæk thær førra i hawir warit
408. for thy wardhir allir mathir ætin at somi æta kalen ok somi krasen
409. honwm træghar thæth han lewir som ræknar thæth han æthir
410. soma hawa hæl ok somi hængia widhir
411. thæth ær lika at honwm swidhir som vndhir mighir
412. thæn brythir skip som skip hawir
413. hwar ormen trædhir a stiærtin han wændhir æ howdhit in geen
414. tha stekaren kiwar wardhir kalen føthir
415. thæn bidhær ey længe thær godhan faar daghwardh
416. thæn ær næst i handom hawir
417. hwa som kastar bwlyxe t varom hærra han kastar nydhio i geen
418. wani bidhir bæst
419. thæth skal een knekehalz koma i hugh at gaseen lutir vndhir væg
420. thæn kan ey stiæla som ey kan gøma
421. staffrande man skal stydhia sik mædh kæp
422. hemelikin hærra gør otroin hioon
423. wilt thu haua eldin tha leta j askonne
424. wærldin ær all wilia drygh
425. siællan ær rapan godh
426. kærlingh tuttar æptir siine thoskæppo
427. thæth ær een ond mws ey hawir meer æn eth hws
428. thæt veth hand som han hawir
429. thæth skiin wtan hwar innan krystir
430. man skal ey rækia foten længir æn skinfældin rækkir
431. mællom twa stola faldhir stiærtin i eldh
432. wænta kombir ey aal i pungh
433. han bedhis thær thorff thæn wethir som vil
434. opta ær hulth hørande nær
435. hwa som i otiidh athir han skal fasta ætande tiidh
436. hema ær bæst at sofua
437. thæth feta wil alt vppe flyta
438. tholik man gaar til dør som inne ær
439. litin ær wilians røøn
440. j thysto vatne æru orma værste
441. man ma ok forsta halft sakt ordh
442. sla gaman til alwaro
443. alt ær karle køpelicth
444. hwa ey waghar han ey vindhir
445. glømdir ær guldin øre
446. styr hæst mædh belz ok kono mædh kæp
447. orm ær opta vndhir blomstrande buska
448. een skæppa mædh wænto ær ey hand ful mædh wisso 11
449. han skæmmir sin mwn som onth rimar
450. swa godh ær een wik i aar som twa i fiordh
451. dyrka thæth nampn gærna som korn giwir ok kærna
452. thæn ær mykith ræddir som ey thorff skælwa
453. thæn ær godh som for gudh ær gudhir
454. siwkdom ok allir kraka til by, gesta sorg at qwælle, ok æru syszkene | thry
455. thær ær hand som saart ær, hiærta som godz ær, øgha som kært ær
456. hwem syndh ær ey ledh, honum ær gudh wredh
457. thæn witnar ey wæl som vredhir ær wtan skæl
458. harm gør hæluite
459. kærlingh skal æ hawa sina thrætto fram
460. eth ær ræth ok annath ær slæth
461. mædhan siwdhir wrangh gryta owir eld mæn ræt gryta | bedhis i by
462. høgth ær hærra bwdh
463. hwart kaar staar sinom butn
464. domin ær ey kær them sik weth wara oskær
465. budhskap ma jak frambæra answar ma jak ey walda
466. bætre ær nadh æn ræthir
467. man faar, ok redho i handom thæth ær ey lika
468. thæn skal søst lowa thær radh skal styra
469. eld i skøt orm i barm mws i æskio ærw onde gæste
470. gamal kathir lapar ok miølk
471. nænningh hawir pæningh
472. ok kombir skadhi for sputtarans dør
473. thæth kostar ok been at ridha aa staff
474. goth ær wara aff godho tughin
475. thæn skal wara thidhen som ey ær kærkomen
476. opta faar man loff for litith ok last for alzænkte
477. thæn ær godhir som glug fyllir
478. nw ligia lagh i spiutstangs ænda
479. hors gællir ondhan køreswen
480. thæn ær gladh som ey weth aff wanda
481. bætra ær wita eld i by æn ondh wana
482. naar ølit gaar in tha gaar vethith wth
483. man ma swa vænias vidh ilt at onth ær fulgoth
484. man gømir ey væl gul vndir geta tungo
485. frændir æru wslom wærst
486. man weth ey hwar lykkan ær mæst
487. thæn hawir hart delomaal thær skæpnan ær wredh
488. deel ey mædh thin domara
489. ær røris kiiff aff ølkwno bodh
490. hwa arla riis han wardhir manx wiis
491. krakan ær ey thy hwitare at hon opta badhar
492. slippirt ær beto skin kasta mik nw piælt min
493. thorgeth ær i goth at thær kombir mangen snok
494. kasta mik hwart thu wilt ok ey i vatnen saghde w…
495. swa skal wsal vthir fla faa hwaske krop alla skin
496. hwasom hawir bal ok staff han far wæl kompon
497. goth ær at leka nar wæl fallir
498. lætum thæn swæria ænga hafuir siælena 12
499. han ær man som manz gærninga gør
500. bætra ær æplit giwit æn ætith
501. hoffhmanna hæsta vilia alle til harff
502. bætra ær siæluir hawa æn systor vidhirthorffua
503. lithin byrdhe ær langh vægh thungh
504. æ lættis mata byrdhe
505. stor skip liggia a lande mædhan sma gaa til sio
506. Røn ær godh drængh
507. bætra ær lykka æn hundradha mark
508. bætre ær skælgh æn blindh
509. æ kombir kringildriff mædh hwas kniiff ok toom bwk
510. ottosangh ær almosogangh ok mæssan hon ær prydha afftonsagh ær spot ok hadh hwar som thæth vil lydha
511. fødh mik i aar jak fødhir tik at are
512. goth thol giwir godhan ænda
513. æ vithnas goth, gladhv hiærta
514. bæthir quæmmir skrapa osten æn skrædha
515. ondh hustru æthir bloman aff aggit ok bondin thæth hwita
516. litin hæst ær i vadhi mæst
517. mange bryta borghir
518. with skal til wanda
519. thæn mik litith giwir han mik lifwit an
520. jak ær i hughin gladh tha hawir pæninga i min pung
521. kasta j iordhans floodh tho ær han ey bætre æn før
522. hwa litith faar han litith skær
523. æ kombir for ok slækkir andra i gaar miste jak min bonda ok i dagh tappadhe
jak minne naal ær thæ sorgh wærræ | som sidharst kombir
524. æ ær ilt rædhandis ok got ær ey ofmykit
525. læt hundh til hunax kaar han springir j mædh badhon fotom
526. æ følghir agærdh wande køpe
527. førsta howdæt wærkir tha førghæ alle limine
528. howdh løøs hær wardhir ey radh fore
529. tholik war thin sænningh som thith fæ draap
530. thæth ær gamal sidh barn gør barns gærninga
531. hon ær modhor som math giwir
532. Manga mys skulu en kat binda
533. thæth ær mws som ma koma i fatigha konu pusa
534. han giwir mws maat som til morghons gømir
535. Mange æro køre swena værst [ær honum draghir
536. Manga handa værningh ær i kræmara bodh
537. Mange æru manz vægha
538. fro ær frælsis framgang
539. alwara ok gaman fallir væl saman
540. jlth ær til vagn tha alle aka
541. faghir ordh frøghda æn dara
542. alla gawor æru godha wtan køluo hwg
543. loffs visa ær manga lunde quædhin
544. alle dø the som feghe æru
545. hwa kan hawa forbyrdh for dødsins aatstrydh
546. thæn steen wardhir ok wath som mange spotta aa 13
547. honum ær ilt at løpa som nødhis til at løpa
548. Thæn ær een dare swa giwir skip at han liggir siælwir a lande
549. J frost ok i køldh kænnir kærlingh sin son at spara | ok tak æ goth hwar thu kan ffa

Läs del 2 här.

Den här artikeln, skriven av Johan Käll, publicerades tidigare på vår gamla hemsida.

Coping with winter

Wintertime was a time of travel in Sweden. The frozen riverbeds and bogs supplied virtual highways for sleighs and skiers. Summertime you where mostly restricted to climb the highest “hole roads” (swe: Hålvägar), suitable only for sumpter horses. Much campaigning was done wintertime because of the ease of transportation. Also, the peasants were not needed to tend crops as much during winter. One drawback would be the lack of daylight, but at full moon and a clear sky the winter night is not very dark. Coping with cold is not as hard either. Firstly the Swedes of that time where used to be outdoors most of the time. Secondly, cold is mainly a factor when you stand still. Down to -15 to -20 degrees Celsius you will do good with just two woollen tunics as long as you are working or are in motion. As soon as you stand still you will need warmer clothes though, as your body will not generate warmth through being active.


Most things concerning winter campaigning is not about to clothes however, but of how you conduct yourself. Don’t stand in snow for long times. Stand on isolating pine branches. Don’t wear warm clothes on the move and get sweaty, put them on during breaks. Drink and eat regularly so the body have energy to keep itself warm you. Change wet socks right away, as getting wet is the best way to freeze. All these things were known even to medieval man as being outdoors was everyday life for them. They where probably more weather resistant and rugged then us normal modern weaklings and may have put up with a bit more discomfort then we are willing to endure. In Albrechts Bössor we are active the year round. Each year we stage a small one day winter march to test our gear to see that it will cope with winter conditions. This would have been vital for Swedish soldiers since, as stated above, many wars where fought wintertime. Thus we have found out some things that will be different from normal campaigning. So, there are some things one can get to make life in the wintertime easier.


Although snow is water of a sort it is not always suitable for drinking. First of all, it cools you, and secondly its dry and don’t quench the thirst as good. For cooking, snow is excellent though, so there is no lack of water when in camp where there is snow. One problem that we encountered was that the water in the leather canteens froze. This resulted in that some of the canteens, that used a cork, was frozen shut and could not be opened at all. The one using a wooden plug could be pried open and the layer of ice that had formed inside hacked through with a dagger to get some drinking water. We recommend that canteens should be carried inside your clothes and let the body heat warm them, as is usual in modern days.



Mittens and gloves

Mittens are a vital part of the winter gear. Hands get cold easily as the body draws heat from the extremities first to preserve it for vital organs. Five finger gloves where used as well as mittens and three fingered mittens. They could be in ordinary wool, felted wool, naalbinded, felted naalbinding or leather. No fur lined gloves have survived but it is very likely they have been around.





The feet are most often prone to getting cold while walking in snow so socks is rather essential. Maybe the medieval hikers made use of straw, stuffing it into oversized shoes, to keep warm. This is known to have been practised later on. However we have no evidence that they did so during the 14:th century. Naalbound socks however seems to have been in use.


Cloaks and coats

The cloak was used in Scandinavia in the 14th century maybe more then down on the continent. Coats also see good use, if we can judge from surviving documents from the time. The scholar Eva Andersson say coats and cloaks have been worn by both sexes even if cloaks seem to have been worn more by women than by men. Men seem to have preferred coats. Winter coats would have been lined for warmth, either with a thicker wool or with fur. Maybe furs have been worn as they where, that is, with the fur out. It is hard to tell from manuscripts as they do not use the terms the same way we do now. Pictures showing men wearing furs is picturing heathens in most cases and it is therefore not easy to use as reference on how ordinary people would dress. It seems to have been most common to wear the collar of the hood under the cloak/coat.



Although most hats used summertime will have been in use even wintertime the hood seems to be very popular during cold and harsh weather. It is also an almost perfect piece of clothing for this and its popularity is understood by all that has owned one. A lined hood, either with woollen cloth or with fur, will keep you warm and snug in winter. Anyone having had a lump of snow dumped inside the collar of your jacket when stirring a tree, will also know to appreciate the hood and its protecting collar. It also serves well to keep the neck warm as scarves don’t seem to be in use. As stated above it seems to have been practice to wear the collar of the hood under the cloak or coat, but over the tunic. This will save you from getting the collar blown up in your face when the wind comes. Other hats can include fur lined hats or just simple woollen ones. Fur lined hats are mentioned in contemporary documents and would have been worn even in summer. Hats with fur on the outside do not seem to have been popular though. On a pillar in the Linköping dome one can see hats on soldiers that are probably naalbound. Naalbound hats might have been more common than we know of now.


Winter shoes differ from summer shoes mainly in that they need to be a bit bigger so that you can fit some kind of extra warming material in them, that is socks or such. An extra thick sole is also preferable to isolate from the ground. A shoe with a thick sole of cork has been found in Stockholm and is dated to around 14th century, as well as a sole with traces och naalbinding on it. Pattens is also of use in that matter. Maybe extra inner soles have been in use, but we know little of that. Traditional soles of birch bark was used in Sweden in old days, but if this habit dates back to 14th century we don’t know. They are excellent in keeping the feet warm though. Winter shoes should also have a bit of shaft on them to keep the snow out.

The winterdress reconstructed

These are some examples of the winter dress reconstructed and tested in outdoor activity  wintertime. In general, they work as good, if not better then modern clothes.


Gloves are vital since the hands get cold fast. Here are two pairs of naalbound gloves, three fingered and thumbed model, and one pair of three finger gloves made of hard felted wool lined with sheep fleece. The fleece lined gloves almost proved to warm. The felt, felted with earth, is very weather resistant.


The dress – Travel

On march, lighter clothing is worn since activity will keep you warm, especially if you carry a burden. The dress below shows a man on march. He wears a tunic (Swe: Kyrtil) and a super tunic (Swe: överkjortel) or Cote and Surcote. The air trapped between them will keep his body heat. Therefore they should not be to tight. He also sports a hood lined with fur. This one with black fur, being in fashion in late 14:th century. This hood was indeed very cosy in the chill winds. Also, he have double hose. These can be seen on illustrations where you see one pair rolled down. As always in winter clothing, the key here is layers. A pair of naalbound mittens and socks tops him of and makes him ready to travel the woods of King Albrecht’s Sweden.


The dress – reinforced

For taking breaks and standing still this dress in reinforced with a coat. The coat is made of rough felt, felted with earth to make it very weather resistant and water resistant. It is also lined with hare fur. This coat is very warm and will keep out water and wind like a charm. Combined with the hood it is an excellent winter garment.


A coat can also be lined with a thicker wool. Like this coat with a felt outside and a lining of a more “airy” wool inside. The “paired” buttons seems to have been more common on these kind of outer garments then on regular cotes.


The cloak

Although a bit out of fashion the cloak was used during the later 14th century, especially by women. Men carried them as well of course and they are rather good at keeping you warm. The drawback is that it is hard to work in them. As soon as you move too much, the warm air you have collected inside it escapes. Although, we used a cloak to test it. It is made from heavy wool and lined with a nice red and black striped wool. It is a rather heavy piece of clothing buttoned by three buttons. It is better to sleep in it than to work in it.


This article, written by Johan Käll, was previously published on our old webpage.

Mått och vikter under 1300-tal

Denna artikel bygger helt på, och är i många fall tagen rakt av ifrån boken ’Vad kostade det’ av Lars O Lagerqvist och Ernst Nathorst-Böös. En kul bok med prisuppgifter från 1170 till 1995, men även med många bra översikter om gamla mått, vikter och valutor. Jag har tagit bort information om vikter efter medeltid där så förekommer.

Aln – Svealand, Östergötland, Gotland 56cm. Västergötland 64 cm. Öland 52 cm.
Ankare – 39,25 liter.
Bok – 24 ark skrivpapper. 20 bok = 1 ris.
Centner – 100 skålpund = 42,5 kg. Som Bergvikt 8 lispund (60 kg).
Decker (däcker) 10 st (mått för skinn och hudar).
Dussin – 12 st.
Famn – 1,78 m. Som vedmått varierande, mellan 3 och 5.65 m
Fat – 157 liter (flytande) 170 kilo (om Osmundsjärn, dvs järnet i “råvara”) 1/32 tunna (spannmål).
Fjärding – Våta och insaltade varor, 12 kannor = 32,4 liter. Torra varor, 4 kappar = 18,3 liter.
Fot – 0,2969 meter = 1/2 aln, kan variera.
Gross – 12 dussin = 144 st.
Jungfru – 1/4 kvarter = 8,2 cl.
Kanna – 2,7 liter.
Kast – 4 st. 20 kast = 1 val (om fisk mest).
Kubikfot – 10 kannor = 26,17 liter.
Lass – skattepliktig körning av varor som varierade. Vanligen 2-3 skeppund. För hö mycket varierande.
Lispund – 8,5 kilo.
Lod – 13,16 kilo.
Läst – 12-13 tunnor. Ibland ifråga om vägda varor 12 skeppund.
Mark – 205-210g. Om järn och koppar 340-375 g. Markpund – Lispund om 6,8 kg.
Mil – 10, 689 km. Smålänsk mil 7,5 km. Västergötland 13 km. Dalarna och finland 5-6 km.
Ort – 4,25g. Som rymdmått samma som ’jungfru’.
Oxhuvud – Rymdmått – 90 kannor = 236 liter. Kan vid import av rödvin vara 225 liter.
Pund – Samma som lispund.
Skeppund – Oftast 170 kg. För järn och koppar användes 5 olika viktsystem mellan 136 och 194,5 kilo. 1 skeppund = 20 lispund.
Skålpund – 0,425 gram = 32 lod.
Skäppa – 24,8 liter.
Spann – Mycket varierande, Stockholm 47 liter, södra Norrland 30-60 liter, Götaland över 50 liter.
Stavrum – Mått för ved, varierande, ofta 6m
Stig – Kolmått, ca: 20 hl, Dalarna 17.-18 hl.
Stop -1/2 kanna = 4 kvarter = 1,3 liter.
Stycke (tyg) – 30 m (lärft/ylle) 15 meter (bomull/siden).
Timmer – 40 st. Om skinn.
Tjog – 20 st.
Tum – 2,47 cm.
Tunna – Varierar efter användning. Fisk och Öl – 125,6 liter. Smör – 16 pund. Spannmål – 142-165 liter.
Val – 20 kast á 4 st (om sill med mera).
Åm -144 liter (vin), kan dock vara 157 liter.

Den här artikeln, som är skriven av Johan Käll, fanns tidigare publicerad på vår gamla hemsida.

Handgonnes and cannons of the middle ages

We could start this text by telling you about the Chinese origin of black powder, as can be found on dozens of pages on the web. But we won’t, because it’s not relevant. This article is about the use of handgonnes and black powder during the European middle ages, and that is a whole other thing. So we’ll start at black powder as a phenomenon.


In medieval Sweden gunpowder was called just “pulver”, wich translates into “powder”. There are quite a few old powder recipes still around, and the ones that suits our selected historical period
are referred to as, for example, Rouen, Lille, Rothenburg and Marcus Graecus. They all use the same ingredients, but the amounts differ. In the table below, they are compared to a modern “perfect”


Tests made at the Middelaldercenter in Nyköbing, Denmark show a correlation between higher muzzle velocity and higher amount of salpetre. The ingredients were ground up and mixed, resulting in a so called dry mixed powder. This can be used as it is, but it will be more effective if mixed with alcohol, shaped into bars or pellets and then ground again, producing wet mixed powder or meal powder. The alcohol dissolves the salpetre, and lets the tiny sulphur crystals divide and evenly on the grains of charcoal, making the powder burn more even. It is important to note that there has
been some debate about the use of alcohol in medieval gunpowder, as distilled beverages is barely known at the time. However, sources speak of a “Henricus Brännewattnmakare” (Henricus, maker of burnt (distilled) water, meaning a producer of alcohol) in the city of Lund in the 1350’s, wich means that alcohol was in use at the time. If it was used to make gunpowder we do not know. Sulphur could be collected in volcanic areas in Iceland or Italy, while salpetre was produced by collecting dung and urine from livestock, and processing it, to extract the salpetre. Charcoal was abundant in medieval society.


The name of our group contains the word “Bössor”, and in modern Swedish “Bössor” means some sort of handgun like a rifle or shotgun. In the middle ages the term “bössa” (sg.)/”bössor” (pl.) is applied to both handgonnes and cannons. In other words there are two different types of “Bössor” in the fourteenth century, and it can be used as a very rough measurement regarding calibre and purpose; “Stenbössa” – firing stones, and “Lodbössa” – firing lead shot. The “Stenbössa” seems to stand for larger calibre – possibly a cannon, whilst the “Lodbössa” seems to have had smaller calibre – possibly a handgonne.

The projectile

The handgonne and the medieval cannon fired mainly lead shot (“lod”), stone balls, “grape shot” or arrows. The use of arrows is a bit peculiar – it doesn’t seem to have any obvious advantages in comparison to stone balls. One theory is that the cannon presented an alternative to the so called ballista (a siege engine for firing huge arrows), and that gunpowder was just another method of propelling the projectile. The lead shot was probably cast by the gunner himself, using a cast made of sand stone, soap stone or bronze – as there was no fixed system for calibre, each man had to provide for himself.


A mould for casting lead bullets. From the National museum in Helsinki

The grape shot (Swe: kartesch) , which turned the handgonne or cannon into sort of a shotgun, was used against people and animals (like war horses) at close range. Virtually anything could be used as grapeshot, but shards of flint seem to have been common, as the razor sharp flint shards inflicted massive damage. The grape shot could be free loaded, or put into a triangular container for bigger guns; the Museum of Medieval Stockholm displays some of these, found on a sunken ship. When fired, the walls of the “pyramid” fall away some distance from the muzzle, thus giving the grape
shot a longer effective range before it disperses.


15th-16th century grapeshot containers filled with flint


There is an ongoing discussion about the effectiveness of the medieval handgonnes. A lot of people claim the handgonne was a weapon with a mere psychological effect; that the smoke, sound and fire scared enemies, and that the weapon really didn’t have any tactical use. A battlefield is a horrifying place, with death, fear and suffering all over, and even if loud bangs, smoke and the smell of sulphur probably would increase the chaos and confusion, it wouldn’t make a whole lot of difference. Furthermore, soldiers would not have gone into battle time and again with a weapon they didn’t trust, and was just for “show”, a city would not have bought 500 of them, and the handgonne would not have developed into what it is today. Let’s take a closer look at what a handgonne is really doing.

One of the differences between the handgonne and other ranged weapons of the age is that arrows and crossbow bolts are that the latter do cutting damage, similar to knives or other edged weapons. They harm by puncturing or cutting organs and limbs. The area affected is small, about the size of the arrow head. This means that you have to hit a vital organ or nerve-centre to put an opponent out of action. There is more than one account of people continuing to fight even when pierced by several arrows. The handgonne on the other hand does kinetic damage. The projectile from a handgonne doesn’t pass through the target as easily as an arrow would, and this means it transfers more of its motive energy into what ever is being hit. The motive energy affects a larger area of an opponents body, as it sets the fluids and fat in the human organism in vibrating motion, which in quite a few instances can injure vital organs. How big an area affected depends of the velocity and weight of the projectile – the higher the weight and speed, the worse the effect.

The usual way to evaluate the damage done by modern firearms is to see how many joule of energy it transfers into its target. The higher the amount of transferred energy, the bigger the damage to the tissues of the body. Tests have shown that the energy transferred by a handgonne is about 1000 joule – a modern assault rifle transfers about 1100. Handgonnes also worked like a charm against the armour of professional soldiers and knights. As these were mainly adapted to cope with arrows and sharp weapons, the sheer power of a projectile from a handgonne would strike an unlucky target to the ground, and with great possibility severely injure him, or at least make him unable to continue the fight.

To have a closer look at how effective handgonnes really were, visit Ulrich Bretscher’s page about handgonnes.

Range and accuracy

Surely, the short barrelled handgonnes would not outshoot a longbow? Perhaps not. The above mentioned Middelaldercenter did some scientifically recorded test firing of a replica of the Swedish Loshultbössan in 2002. It was fired several times with different kinds of gunpowder, based on the recipes above. Also, some shots were fired with modern gunpowder. Different projectiles were used; the handgonne was loaded with 50g of gunpowder, and fired at an angle of 40 degrees. The range of the shots averaged between 600 metres up to 950 metres. Two shots travelled over a 1000 metres, with 1100 being the longest, using modern gunpowder. The muzzle velocity was between 150-250 metres per second. This shows that handgonnes could match longbows as far as range is concerned.

The accuracy of the early firearms might not be excellent, but not totally worthless either. According to Ulrich Bretscher’s experiments, an inexperienced hand gunner would score about 80% hits at a man sized target at a distance of 25 metres, but as the weapons fire a round projectile with the help of non consistent gunpowder from a short barrel, the conditions for marksmanship is limited at the least. The handgonnes, however, seems to have been used mainly in greater engagements, where the target was not an individual but a couple of hundreds in a unit. Even a blind shooter would probably hit someone in a unit of hundreds of spearmen.

From the early examples to later specimens

So what do we know about this? To be honest, not a whole lot, especially when we are talking about Scandinavia. This has a lot to do with a great fire in the seventeenth century, when the royal castle of Stockholm was burnt to ashes, along with a huge pile of medieval documents. This forces us to use sources from the rest of Europe. Applying theory, we might be able to get a decent picture.

We know that the Europeans have known about black powder since about 1260. Roger Bacon comments on it, but as far as he is concerned, it is only fit for amusement. He is possibly referring to fireworks. In 1326 the Italian city of Florence orders a manuscript (De NobilitatibusSapientiset Prudentia Regum), written by Walter de Milemete, said to be a member of the English clergy. The text is believed to be copy of an already existing volume, and shows the earliest known picture of a firearm. We see a gunner standing by a vase shaped gun lying on a table. This so called “pot-de-fer” cannon is loaded with an arrow projectile.


The earliest known European image of a firearm. Circa 1320

1334 cannons are involved in the defence of Meersburg in south west Germany. Next we hear of an English ship carrying guns in 1338. The battle of Crecy in 1346, also saw guns in action. The guns mentioned above, is with great probability cannons rather than handgonnes. In 1360 the Rathaus of Lübeck explodes, probably due to fault handling of gunpowder. Lübeck was a centre for mercenaries, and as all sorts of Germans, mercenaries and merchants, regularly travelled or even moved to Sweden, the use of gunpowder and it’s companion the handgonne, would have been well known in Scandinavia by the time of the Rathaus explosion. In 1362 the Italian city of Pergua purchase 500 handgonnes, giving us a trace to how many handgonnes were used. In the same year, Kristoffer, the son of the Danish king, Valdemar Atterdag, is struck in the jaw by a projectile believed fired by a handgonne, and dies from it the year after. Ten years later, handgonnes are mentioned in a Danish manuscript, and gunners are employed by the German city of Hamburg from at least 1360. 1395 firearms are first mentioned in Swedish sources, when the Swedes “borrow” a big gun from the Germans administering the castle in Stockholm.

Gun evolution

The first guns were cast in bronze. They were often vase shaped, and seems to have been used primarily in some sort of mount. They were fired by sticking a burning match or a piece of red hot iron in a priming hole or sometimes in the front end of the gun. Soon guns made of iron staves held together by iron hoops (much like an ordinary barrel) appear alongside the cast bronze guns. Welding is another known method of making guns – you “simply” take a sheet of iron and fold it into at tube, and weld the seams together. Smaller guns were mounted on wooden shafts and used more or less like rifles by “handgunners”. In England, these devices were referred to as “hand gonnes”. Some of these weapons was constructed with a hook, allowing the gunner to hook his weapon over a wall or the like, so that the recoil of the handgonne wouldn’t affect him. As some gunners operated single handedly, holding the gun with one hand and the match with the other, this support was surely appreciated. In the latter parts of the fourteenth century cannons with free chambers appear (called Föglare in medieval Swedish). This construction allowed a hugely increased firing rate, as pre-loaded chambers could quickly be inserted in the cannon. Another advantage was that the crew was not as exposed when reloading. Some evidence however, seems to point to these guns not being as reliable as muzzle loaded guns; they were more prone to explode.

1411 the first known triggers appear in sources. They are little more than just an s-shaped or z-shaped lever pivoting around its centre, not unlike crossbow triggers. When pressing the part under the stock, the upper part (holding the match) descends to ignite the primer, firing the handgonne. Some time later, the stock evolves from having been just a stick held under the arm or like a pike, with the end of the stock in the ground, or atop the shoulder, like a bazooka, into a “real” stock, made to hold against the shoulder. This model coexists with the earlier type. The barrels tend to get longer with smaller calibre.

The first known possible handgonne to survive to this day is the so called Loshultsbössan (the Loshult gun/cannon), found in the southernmost part of Sweden. It is a small 31 millimeter bore gun cast in bronze. It is dated to the middle of the fourteenth century, and has been extensively examined by Middelaldercenter i Denmark.


The Loshult gun. It is dated to circa 1340-1350. Note the similarity with the earliest known depicted cannon above

Another gun, Mörköbössan (The Mörkö Handgonne), found south of Stockholm, is dated to the last quarter of the fourteenth century.


The beautiful and unique Mörkö handgonne, dated to circa 1380-1400

A third Swedish handgonne, the Borgholmbössan, will soon be presented on this page.

How were gunners organized?

The above indicates that different forms of gunners have been around in Sweden/Scandinavia since the middle of the fourteenth century, but what it doesn’t tell us, is how common they were. They don’t appear in Scandinavian pictorial evidence until the beginning of the fifteenth century, on the brass of bishop Henrik of Finland (at the time, Finland was called “the Eastern half of the realm”, an integrated part of Sweden). We have a very vague idea of how gunners were organized, thanks to European sources; the most common seems to have been in groups, like bowmen.

Some examples: At the battle of Ravenspur 1471, 320 Burgundian gunners reportedly participated. John of Burgundy allegedly had 4000 handgonnes in his armoury, and at the battle of Stoke, the earl of Lincoln is said to have fielded 2000 handgonnes! In Scandinavia it is reported that Karl Knutsson in his campaign on Skåne, had enough gunners to organize them into one separate unit, marching under the flag of saint Erik, national saint of Sweden. Karl Knutsson is also reported to have brought “Wagon guns” (kärrebössor)on the above mentioned campaign.

The naming of guns

Christine de Pisan, a lady who wrote quite a bit on how war was to be waged in the early fifteenth century, clearly states the necessity of naming the guns and cannons. The reason for this, she claims, is that a commander would have a lot of different calibre guns to keep apart, and since the common soldier could not be trusted to remember calibres it was necessary to be able to refer to the gun by its name: “I would like Katrina placed over here, and Anna placed over there!”. The soldier would then know what gun was which, and what kind of ammunition would go with it.

The most famous guns in Sweden was “Diefulen” (“The Devil”) and “Diefuls Mater” (“The Mother of the Devil”), that protected the Stockholm Castle in the sixteenth century. The named handgonnes of Albrechts Bössor is named Örsdöder (Destrier killer), Keterlin Haverblast, Faule Agnes and Mathilda.

The other guns are yet to be named.

This article, written by Johan Käll & Peter Ahlqvist, was previously published on our old webpage.

Swedish medieval armour terminology

Svenska medeltida termer för rustningar

Inom rustningsterminologi såväl som kläder från medeltid råder ibland stor förvirring. Engelska och franska termer samsas tillsammans med lokala termer och latin. Dessutom används termer från hela medeltiden och under 500 år ändrades både rustning och termer. Skillnader i rustning som var uppenbara för dem har gått förlorade för oss. Vi har nu föga aning vad som skiljer en aketon från en gambeson. Nya tolkningar har gjorts som vissa använder sig av, vissa inte. Inom Albrechts Bössor försöker vi värna om den svenska medeltida terminologin och letar med ljus och lykta efter samtida termer. Här följer en liten sammanfattning av något vi funnit.


Den medeltida benämningen för krigsmateriel var Tygh, något som i viss mån även gäller även idag. De som gjort värnplikt vet att tygförrådet är det som man hämtar sina vapen ifrån. Detta används i Erikskrönikan ’ok redde sik tha wapn ok tyghe’ på sidan 30.



Vanligen kallad bascinet. 1350 säljer en viss Niklas Pekkilhuva jord i Kalmar. Hans vapen visar en bascinet med fjällanventail (Raneke, sidan 593).

Även kung Magnus Eriksson var stolt ägare till ” jtem vnam pekkelhwæ. cum slappor.”


Uttrycket ’Slappor’ är till viss del höljt i dunkel, men det är mycket sannolikt rör det sig om någon form av skydd för halsen, så som en ringkrage hängande från en hjälm (en så kallad aventail) eller en lös halskrage av läder, tyg, ringbrynja eller lameller.



En rustning för bålen bestående av stål- eller järnplattor nitade på insidan av läder eller tyg. Även kallad coat of plates, Visbyharnesk eller överdragsrustning. Erikskrönikan nämner dessa många gånger: ”mahrg plata bleff ther ospent” (sidan 57), “hielma plator och panzere” (sidan 30), ”min hielm min brynia ok min plata” (sidan 37), ”harnisk plator ok anat meer” (sidan 106) för att nämna några exempel. Även Kung magnus hade en, fast han hade glömt den i Norge: ”et vna platæ remansit in akersborgh.”



En tygrustning, att ha under annan rustning eller för sig själv. Kallas annars gambeson eller aketon. Erikskrönikan kallar den panzar eller panzare; “hielma plator och panzere” (sidan 30). Att den nämns tillsammans med platan visar att den inte bara är ’ett pansar’ utan något speciellt sådant. Under denna tid används bara plata, brynja och tygrustningar vad man vet. Kung Magnus Eriksson hade förutom ovan nämnda rustningstyper ”jtem vnum panzer”. Ett senare omnämnade av panzare finns i Stockholms tänkebok från 1400-talet.



Det finns många omnämnanden om denna hjälm som i olika former lever kvar än idag. Järnhatten var mycket vanlig och kan enklast beskrivas som en järnkalott med brätte. Järnhatten är den hjälm de medeltida landslagarna säger att folkuppbådet skall ha.



Den vanligaste tolkningen av muzza eller muza är att det rör sig om en ringbrynjehuva, en huva av ringbrynja som vanligtvis bärs under en annan hjälm. Det påminner mycket om hur “mössa” stavas under 1300-tal i olika dokument. Muzzan var en del av den rustning folkuppbådet skulle ha. En riddare vid namn Anders testamenterar 1299 även sin ”cum sella muzam cum plata” Senare skall hans ”armatorum” (rustning) säljas för att ge pengarna till hans biktfar. Muzam var alltså inte del av rustningen, som troligen var en ringbrynja vid denna tid.



Ringpansar, ringbrynja. Ordet nämns ofta i källorna, till exempel i Erikskrönikan: ”min hielm min brynia ok min plata” (sidan 37), i Karl Magnus (sidan 255) ”oc före han i twa brynior” eller i Riddar Ivan – Lejonriddaren (sidan 50) “brynior ok hiälma the sunder slitu”. Rustningstypen benämns malioharnisk i ett brev från 1408: ”för en fating och ena plato och för ett malaharnisk, som han hadhe lanth wårom fadher”

Kung Magnus ägde även ”jtem I. par maliotygh ” och ”I. par maliohuso”.



Harnisk är ett något luddigt uttryck. I Erikskrönikan talar man om ”harnisk plator ok anat meer” (sidan 106), ”man saa ther margt eth harnisk blangt” (sidan 117), något som antyder att ett harnisk var gjort av (putsad metall). Kanske rör det sig om tidiga plåtrustningar för bålen. Ordet kopplas också samman med andra rustningsdelar. I Raven von Barnekows räkenskaper för Nyköpingshus står att Kung Albrecht köper ’benharnesk’ för 4 öre. Kanske är det så att harnisk är en samlingsterm för rustningsdelar i plåt? Detta motsäges av termen Malaharnisk (mala/malia/malja, ring) som nämns i ett brev. Kanske är det bara ett allmänt ord för rustning.

Andra termer

Kopartygh – Hästrustning
Tasteer – Stjärn, skydd för hästens huvud

Båda dessa enligt tolkningar är gjorda av Sven-Bertil Jansson. Han tolkar passagen på sidan 106 i Erikskrönikan. Dessutom nämns begreppen i ovan nämnde riddar Anders testamente: ”confero dextrarium meum cum cuparthyr taster”.


Svenskt diplomatarium
Danskt Diplomatarium
Medeltida romaner 1300-tal
Ivan Lejonriddaren
Karl Magnus
Flores ok Blanzeflor
Medeltida dokument 1300-tal
Raven von Barnekows räkenskaper för Nyköpings Fögderi
Om Koningx Styrilsi
Magnus Erikssons Landslag

Raneke/Svenska Medeltidsvapen III
Kung Magnus boupteckning för Bohus slott
Karl Magnus, en roman från sent 1300-tal
Ivan Lejonriddaren

Den här artikeln, skriven av Johan Käll, var tidigare publicerad på vår gamla hemsida i annan version.